14th Symposium of the International Society of Tropical Root Crops -Africa Branch
(ISTRC-AB), Lusaka, Zambia, 20-24 September 2021
Performance of Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties for Yield and Component Traits in Demand Creation Trials
1Adetoro Najimu, 1ThankGod Ogwuche, 1Mercy E. Diebiru-Ojo, 1Kayode Olasupo, 2Teleola Akinlawon, 2Mark Nelson, 1Peter Iluebbey, 1Elizabeth Parkes and 1Peter Kulakow
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria 2Context Global Development, St. Louis, Missouri 63132, USA Corresponding Authors’ email:P.Kulakow@cgiar.org Presenting Authors’ email: T.Ogwuche@cgiar.org
This study identified varieties most suitable for commercial seed and root production in Nigeria. Cassava dry matter and starch yield constitute major determinants of demand by end-users. Increased demand for seed of improved varieties will facilitate development of a sustainable seed system translating into higher yield per unit area, thus generating more income. Therefore, the need to continuously evaluate candidate varieties for stability of performance, identify market demands and recommend varieties for industrial suitability. Participatory demand creation trials (DCTs) were established to evaluate cassava varieties jointly with farmers and processors using large experimental plots utilizing best practices. The DCTs were conducted in three, six and seven locations during the 2016-2017, 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 cropping seasons respectively with two replications, with plot size of 320m2 with spacing of 1m × 0.8m. Data were analysed using R. Results from ANOVA showed genotype (G), environment (E) and GxE interaction effects were significant (P<0.01) for fresh yield and dry matter content. CR36/5 had highest fresh root yield of 26.5t/ha, while IBA070593 (15.0t/ha) was lowest. For DMC, TMS13F1160P0004 (40.1%) performed better than others. TMS13F1160P0004 was the best variety for starch content (24.7%) with IBA961632 (20.2%) and CR36/5 (19.9%) also showing excellent DMC. This study identified four promising high starch varieties for cassava processors in Nigeria: TMS13F1160P0004, IITA-TMS-IBA961632, TMEB419 and CR36/5. These have high yield potential that satisfy demand for farmers and industrial uses.
Keywords: Sustainable seed system, demand creation, industrial suitability, stability
Effect of NPK Fertilizer and Staking on Late Planted Yandu (Dioscorea Rotundata) White Yam Culivar in Southeast Nigeria
1Akinbo, O.K., 2Okpara, D. A., 1Ikoro, A. I. and 2Udeh, D. C.
1National Root Crops Institute, Umudike, P.M.B. 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria 2Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) is an important tuber crop grown for food security, income generation and its high cultural value with mean yield of about 10t/ha, which is only 20% of the yield potential. Soil fertility and staking are critical factors that affect yam production in the humid Southeast Nigeria, where high rainfalls and cloud cover are prevalent. The objectives of this study were to evaluate under field conditions and effects of NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer and stake length on white yam cultivar Yandu at Umudike, Southeast Nigeria in 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons. In each year, the experiment was laid out as a 5×4 factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Treatments comprised all possible combinations of five NPK fertilizer rates (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800kg/ha) and four levels of stake lengths (0, 1, 2 and 3m). In 2017, application of NPK fertilizer at 200kg/ha produced significantly higher number of tubers per plant than no fertilizer, or application of higher NPK rates of 600 or 800kg/ha, but fertilizer application did not significantly influence mean tuber yield likely due to flooding. Interactions of NPK fertilizer x stake length were significant on tuber weight, with application of 200kg/ha NPK fertilizer and 2m stake in 2017, producing higher weight of tuber than most treatment combinations. Year x staking interaction showed that 2m stake in 2016 gave significantly higher tuber yield than the yields in 2017, regardless of stake length. The average tuber yield for 2016 (22.1t/ha) was significantly higher than the average yield of 2017 (11.4t/ha) by 93.5%.
Keywords: NPK fertilizer, staking, late planting, white yam, Southeast Nigeria
Growth, Root yield and β-carotene of Orange fleshed Sweetpotato as affected by integrated use of Composite Manure and Mineral Fertilizer
1Emmanuel O.Anedo and 2Damian O.Asawalam
1National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, P.M.B.7006 Umuahia Abia State 2Department of Soil science and Meteorology Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike Abia State
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This study evaluated the growth, root yield and β-carotene content of orange fleshed sweetpotato as affected by integrated use of composite manure and mineral fertilizer at Umudike Southeast Nigeria. The experiment was a 5×4 factorial laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD).The treatments comprised of five levels of composite manure (pig manure, cow dung and poultry manure) applied at the rate of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8t/ha and mineral fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) applied at the rate of 0, 200, 400 and 600kg/ha. Results of the study showed that application of composite manure significantly (p<0.05) increased number of leaves, number of branches and vine length at different sampling periods. Combined application of mineral fertilizer and composite manure significantly increased the total and marketable root yield with application of 4t/ha composite manure + 400kg/ha mineral fertilizer giving the highest total root yield of 15.90t/ha and marketable root yield of 13.97t/ha. The β-carotene content of the orange fleshed sweetpotato increased generally with increasing rate of the treatment combinations with application of 8t/ha composite manure + 200kg/ha NPK giving the highest β-carotene content of 733.2μg/g compared to other treatment combinations. From the results obtained, application of 4t/ha composite manure + 400kg/ha NPK is therefore recommended for good root yield, while application of 8t/ha composite manure + 200kg NPK is recommended for farmers who wish to enhance the β-carotene content of orange fleshed sweetpotato in the area.
Keywords: Composite manure, mineral fertilizer, growth, root yield, β-carotene, orange fleshed sweetpotato
Effect of Stem Portion and Number of Stakes per stand on Growth and Yield of NR8082 Cassava Variety in Southeast Nigeria
1Okpara, D. A., 1Udeh, D. C., 2Akinbo, O.K., 2Eke–Okoro, O. N. and 2Olojede, A.O.
1Department of Agronomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria 2National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Investigations were conducted to study the effect of stem portion and number of stakes per stand on crop establishment, growth and yield of cassava variety NR 8082 in a tropical ultisol of Southeast Nigeria during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 cropping seasons. In each year, the experiment was laid out as a 3 x 3 factorial, arranged in randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Treatments consist of three stem portions of different physiological ages (top, middle and basal) and three numbers of stakes per stand (1, 2 and 3). The middle and basal stem portions significantly increased percent establishment, plant height and leaf area index at 3 MAP but had no effect on number of storage roots per plant. The best stem portion for storage root yield was, however, the top portion which produced the highest yield on average. Number of stakes per plant did not significantly affect stem girth, number of nodes per plant and leaf area index, but the use of 1 stake per stand increased number of storage roots per plant, root weight and storage root yield in 2017/2018 cropping season. Averaged across two seasons, number of stakes per stand did not significantly influence storage root yield. Interactions between stem portion and number of stakes per stand did not significantly affect storage root yield of NR 8082 high cyanide cassava in both cropping seasons.
Keywords: Stem portion, number of stakes, cassava, root yield, Southeast Nigeria
Phenotypic diversity in agromorphological features of six cassava (manihot esculentumcrantz) genotypes evaluated in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria
1Eze Simon, 2Richardson Okechukwu and 3Charles Asadu
1Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria 3Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A field experiment was conducted to characterize six newly developed cassava genotypes based on their agro-morphological features for easy identification by farmers and/or researchers. The study was carried out at the Department of Crop Science Research Farm, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Six cassava genotypes (TMS 01-693, 01-1412, 01-1371, 01-1368, 305 72 and TME 419) from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on the above and below ground morphological characteristics. Some of the genotypes showed distinct morphological characteristics, while others showed marked resemblances in the majority of the traits. Out of the 38 descriptors studied, varieties TME 419 and 30572 differed in very few traits including petiole colour, colour of stem cortex, shape of central leaflet, ease of root peeling, external colour of the storage roots, number of storage roots, root yield and shape of storage roots. Also varieties 01-1371 and 01-1368 showed a close resemblance. Above ground biomass and stem height at first branching were found to have linear relationship with fresh root yield among the varieties. Varieties 01-693, 01-1412 and TME 419 had the best yield and are recommended for adoption in the research area. Results in this study also suggest that careful observation is needed to distinguish among the tested cassava genotypes in order to ensure that a true phenotypic based selection is made whenever needed.
Keywords: Cassava genotype, Identification, Agro-morphology, Phenotypic features
Genetic analysis of root yield and agronomic traits of selected yellow root cassava genotypes in two agro-ecological zones in Nigeria
Ogbuekiri, H., Njoku, D.N., Onyeka, J. and Egesi, C.N.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons at Umudike (humid rainforest) and Otobi (derived savanna) agro-ecological zones to assess yield performance, agronomic parameters and genotypes by environment interaction effects in Nigeria. The trials comprise of two released checks and ten yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The combined analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for fresh root yield, dry matter content, dry root yield, root number, and cassava mosaic disease, across locations for DMC, DRY, and cassava anthracnose disease; genotype x environment interaction for DMC, DRY, and cassava mosaic disease at P<0.001. In Umudike, NR150123 had the highest FRY values of 33.80t/ha and NR150113 with highest DMC of 35.70%. At Otobi, NR150025 recorded the highest FRY value of 37.93 t/ha and DMC of 41.80%. DRY, NR150025 and NR150014 are the vertex and winning genotypes at Otobi. Also, Otobi recorded the highest mean for DMC and FRY and the lowest score for CMD.
Keywords: Agronomic parameters, multilocational trial, interaction, yellow flesh cassava, yield
High nitrogen availability limits photosynthesis and compromises carbohydrate allocation to storage in roots of Manihot esculenta Crantz
John Okoth Omondi1,2,3*, Naftali Lazarovitch1, Shimon Rachmilevitch1, Steve Boahen3, Pheneas Ntawuruhunga4, Uri Yermiyahu2, and Or Sperling2
1French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel
2Gilat Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Gilat, Israel 3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Mozambique 4International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Zambia
*Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava (M. esculenta Crantz), feeding countless people and attracting markets worldwide, is a model for traditional crops that need physiology-based fertigation (fertilization through irrigation) standards in intensive cultivation. Hence, we studied the effects of 10 to 200mg L-1 nitrogen (N) fertigation on growth and yields of cassava and targeted alterations in their photosynthetic, transpiration, and carbohydrate management. We found that increasing irrigation N from 10 to 70mg L-1 increased cassava’s photosynthesis and transpiration but supported only the canopy’s growth. At 100 mgN L-1, cassava reached a threshold of sugar in leaves (~47mg g- 1), began to accumulate starch and supported higher yields. Yet, at 200mg N L-1, the canopy became too demanding and plants had to restrain transpiration, reduce photosynthesis, decrease carbohydrates, and finally lower yields. We concluded that the phases of cassava response to nitrogen are: 1) growth that does not support yields at low N, 2) productive N application, and 3) excessive use of N. Yet traditional leaf mineral analyses fail to exhibit these responses, and therefore we propose a simple and inexpensive carbohydrate measurement to guide a precise use of N.
Keywords: Root-crops, nitrogen, fertigation, carbohydrates, physiological indicators
Growth and yield of cassava under different npk fertilizer (15:15:15) and agrolyzer rates in South-east Nigeria
Nnenna G. Olori-Great and Dominic A. Okpara
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B 7267 Umuahia Abia State Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Four rates of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer and agrolyser were evaluated under field condition for their effects on the growth and yield of NR8082 cassava variety at the National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Nigeria in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 cropping seasons. The experiment was a 4 x 4 factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments consist of all possible combinations of 4 rates of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600kg/ha) and 4 rates of agrolyser (0, 0.8, 1.6 and 2.4kg/ha) applied 8weeks after planting by side placement. Results obtained showed that significant differences were not established in leaf area index, node number, plant height and stem girth although, the trend showed node number, plant height and stem girth were highest at 12months after planting with application of 200kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer and 0.8kg/ha of agrolyser rates. Tuber weight and tuber yield were not significant in 2017/2018, whereas, in 2018/2019, they were significantly influenced by NPK rates of 600kg/ha which gave the highest tuber yield. The tuber yield produced by NPK rate of 600kg/ha was higher than that produced by NPK rates of 0, 200 and 400kg/ha by 35.4%, 12.7% and 29.2% respectively. In both cropping seasons, there were no significant interaction effects on growth and yield parameters taken. For better yield during the later part of the year, NPK rates of 600kg/ha and agrolyser rate of 0.8kg/ha are recommended.
Keywords: Agrolyser, rates, cassava, yield, growth
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) mini tuber evaluation trial at Horticulture Research Center, Marondera, Zimbabwe
Tatenda Nyamwena-Chapman1 , Linda Muusha2, and Dumisani Kutywayo3
1&2 Horticulture Research Institute, P Bag 810 Marondera, Zimbabwe 3Department of Research and Specialist Services, P Bag causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe Emails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
A field experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Research Centre (HRC) in Marondera, Zimbabwe to evaluate the performance of potato mini tubers from China under local conditions. The trial was set as a complete randomised block design replicated thrice with six treatments. The two local checks used were Montclare and BP1 selected on the basis of being the most commonly grown varieties with high yields and blight resistance. Four varieties were being assessed, namely; Favorita, Shepody, Ke Xin No.1 and Atlanta. Data was collected on emergence %, number of marketable and non-marketable tubers, weight of marketable and non- marketable tubers in t/ha, average tuber weight and tuber size, number of tubers/plant. There were significant differences in marketable yield (p≤ 0.01). Ke Xin No.1 mini tuber variety had the highest yield (88.3t/ha) followed by shepody (54.3tha), while Atlantic had the lowest (44.1t/ha). Significant differences were also noted on the number of tubers per plant and on average tuber weight (g) at p≤ 0.05. Ke Xin No. 1 had a highest mean number of tubers per plant (9.87), followed by shepody and Atlanta. Although Ke Xin No. 1 has more tubers /plant, it had the lowest average tuber weight (8.10g) compared to other potato mini tuber varieties. The local checks had the highest average tuber weight; Montclare (150.73g) and BP1 (140.07g). Favorita and shepody ranked third and fourth. All the mini tuber varieties were selected as promising and adaptable varieties to be grown in Zimbabwe. In terms of yield, they performed better than the local checks.
Keywords: Solanum tuberosum, yield and yield components, cultivar evaluation, Adaptation
Effect of Cutting Planting Orientation on Early Plant Establishment and Yield Of Cassava
Mushekwa Sakumona1*, Banda Jonathan2 and Chalwe Able1
1Department of Agriculture Science, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Mukuba University, P.O. Box 20382, Kitwe, Zambia
2Rusangu University, School of Science and Technology, Monze, Zambia *Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the second main staple food crop grown in Zambia after maize. Despite the ability of cassava to tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and to grow under marginal soil fertility, its production is affected by inappropriate cultural practices. The effects of orientation of cuttings at planting on plant establishment and yield were evaluated on Mweru, a high yielding cassava variety popularly grown by the farmers in Mansa District. Three cutting orientation methods namely; vertical, slanting (inclined) and horizontal planting were evaluated in a field trial using a randomized complete block design in four replicates. Assessed parameters were significantly (P<0.05) different for the orientations. Tallest plants with longest leaves and biggest stems were recorded in vertical orientation, while shortest and small stems plants with short leaves were recorded in the horizontal cutting orientation. Horizontal orientation produced the highest number of storage roots (12 roots plant-1), while slanting orientation gave the smallest number (8 roots plant-1), yet the mass of individual storage roots was highest in plants from the vertical orientation (321.12g) and lowest in horizontal orientation (253.2g). The highest cassava fresh storage root yield of 31.45tha-1 was recorded in plants from vertical orientation, while plants from horizontal orientation recorded the lowest yield. Horizontal orientation of cuttings at planting appears to be most suitable for farmers who grow cassava for sale as fresh tubers inn the market and Vertical orientation for cassava chips, flour or industrial purpose.
Effect of Method of Planting and Land Management Practices on the Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz) in the Kalumbila district of Zambia
Gerald Serenje and Jairous Mambwe
Zambia Agriculture Research Institute, Mutanda Research Station, Zambia Corresponding Authors email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava (Manihot esculenta cranz) is one of the most widely grown root crops in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In Zambia, it is an important food security crop, second only to maize (Zea mays). This study describes research results obtained in the development of improved cultural practices, such as three methods of planting and three land management practices in the yield of cassava as a test crop. This was done using the vertical, inclined and horizontal method of planting as well as the flat, ridge and the mound land management practices. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with each treatment replicated 3 times. The results showed that the vertical planting and ridge land management system gave significantly higher fresh storage yields than those of horizontal planting, across two cassava varieties. The variety Mweru produced maximum fresh storage yield across two planting methods, but not significantly different from Chila. Mweru had the highest yield accounting for 125 tubers of cassava which in turn amounted to 33ton/ha as against the other two land management practices. The study therefore recommended a combination of vertical planting and ridge land management practice to be adopted to increase cassava production and productivity.
Keyword: Land management practices, cassava yield, method of planting
Opportunity to reduce potato yield gap: Potential yields versus national average yields
Thokozani Mvula1, Denis Kathabwalika1, Obed Mwenye1, and Margaret Chiipanthenga2
1International Potato Center P.O. Box 31600 Lilongwe Malawi
2Department of Agricultural Research Services, Bvumbwe Research Station, P.O. Box 5748, Limbe, Malawi
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Potato is one of the most important food and income security crop in Malawi. Due to its short production cycle, it helps to bridge the food shortage gap during the critical hunger months of January to March when maize, the staple crop is not ready. Efforts by the International Potato Centre, Department of Agricultural Research services and stakeholders have seen national average potato yields increasing from 5 tons per ha in 2004 to an average of 16.7 tons per ha in 2021. Still, potential yield hang at over 35 ton per ha against the current average of 16.7 ton per ha. This paper provides data on yield that was achieved in potato demonstration plots managed by farmers in project intervention areas. The aim was to assess the effect of employing recommended husbandry practices on yield under farmers’ fields. Demonstration plots were set up in 3 districts; with each district having 3 sites spread in 2 Extension Planning Areas. Three varieties; Chuma, Rosita and Violet were demonstrated. Minimum fertilizer doses of 400kg per ha and 200kg per ha for top and basal dressing using NPK (8:18:15+6S+0.1Bn+0.1Zn) and CAN fertilizers (27% N) were used. Spacing of 75cm between ridges and 25cm between plants were used. Chemicals to control pests and diseases were administered. Results across the sites showed that farmers could achieve higher yields if they followed recommended husbandry practices. On average, Rosita variety yielded 20.4 tons per ha with the highest yield of 24.44 tons per ha registered in Dedza. Lowest yield of 15.14 tons per ha was recorded in Mchinji. Violet variety got an average score of 18.57 tons per ha across the districts with highest mark recorded in Doviko, Tsangano, Ntcheu where we got 27.65 tons per ha. The lowest yield for violet variety of 9.66 tons per ha was observed in Mchinji. Chuma variety got the highest average yield of 23.6 tons per ha across the sites for all varieties. Highest yield for Chuma variety of 30.45 ton was recorded in Dedza, while, the lowest yield of 7 tons was observed in Mchinji. These findings underline the potential for smallholder farmers to increase potato yields by following recommended husbandry practices, thereby, contributing towards increased food, income and nutrition security.
Keywords: Potential yield; Average national yield, demonstration
Determination of optimum harvest time for selected improved cassava varieties in Zambia
Ntawuruhunga, P., Chiona, M., Manda, N., Alamu, E., and Kanju, E.
Corresponding Authors email: F.Chipungu@cgiar.org
Cassava is one of Zambia’s most important food security crops, which small-scale farmers have exclusively produced for their consumption or local trade with small quantities being sent to markets for fresh food consumption, home use flour, and industrial use. Farmers do traditional harvest of their cassava almost after two years. However, the current demand for industrial use is exponentially increasing and cannot be satisfied by the present production levels. This study was conducted to determine the optimum harvest time of three improved varieties; Mweru, Nalumino and Kampolombo. A randomized complete block design arranged in split plot was used with four replications. The plots were harvested at 12, 14 and 16 months after planting (MAP). The trials were conducted for two consecutive years: 2017/18 and 2018/19. Plants height, root yield traits, dry matter content (DMC), starch content and fresh root yield (FRY), cassava mosaic disease severity and incidence (CMDS and CMDI, respectively), cassava green mites severity and incidence (CGMS and CGMI, respectively) were collected. The results showed that the varieties performed significantly (p<0.001) lower different from that of 14, 16 and 18 MAP in FRY. The FRY at 12 MAP was significantly (p<0.001) the lowest with 6.3, 7.6 and 6.3 t/ha for Mweru, Kampolomba and Nalumibo respectively. The performances at 14 and 16 MAP were not statistically different for yield, plant height, number of marketable roots, yield per plant, starch content and starch yield. Mweru was the best yielding in FRY, followed by Kampolombo and Nalumino with 12.6, 10.9 and 8.7 t/ha at 14 MAP and 13.6, 12.2 and 9.2 t/ha at 16 MAP respectively. There were significant (p<0.001) effects of environment, variety, and harvest time on plant height, CMDS, number of marketable and non -marketable roots, FRY and potential yield per plant. There were also significant (p<0.001) interactions between environment x variety and environment x harvest time for all traits that were recorded. Furthermore, there were significant (p<0.001) interactions between environment x variety x harvest time for all observed traits except for CMDS. These results have shown that it is possible to select varieties with good performance to be harvested earlier than the farmers’ traditional harvesting time, to supply the market demand with good quality roots.
Keywords: Cassava varieties, cassava mosaic disease, starch yield, harvest time
Root Yield Performance of Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato as Influenced by Fertilizer Application
Chipungu, F.P1., Kapalamula, C1., Masamba, K2., Sinfukwe, T2., Mbewe, W2., Mwenye, O1., Chiipanthenga, M2., Chitedze, G2., Munthali, M2. and Kazembe, J1.
1International Potato Center
2Department of Agricultural Research Services Corresponding Authors’ email: F.Chipungu@cgiar.org
In Malawi, sweetpotato has gained a steady prominence over the past decade. Among many other reasons, this is due to its ability to adapt to wide production ecologies and yield response to minimal external inputs. However, to sustain high yields, soil nutrient replenishment is required. A trial was conducted to assess the response of root yield of Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato (OFSP) due to fertilizer application. The trial was conducted at Bvumbwe Research Station during 2017/18 and 2018/19 seasons and at Bvumbwe, Chitala and Makoka Rresearch Stations in 2019/20. Four OFSP varieties namely Anaakwanire, Chipika, Kadyaubwerere and Mathuthu were used for evaluation as influenced by a special blend of fertilizer; 10:20:20+6s for basal dressing and 25:00:27 for top dressing. Four different levels of fertilizer rates were used; 0, 100, 150 and 250kg/ha. Harvested at 5 months after planting, the sweetpotato roots were evaluated for total root yield (t/ha), number and weight (t/ha) of commercial roots, root size, number of roots per plant, dry matter content (%), palatability taste of the roots and sweetpotato weevil damage. Plants with viral infection were also recorded. Soil sampling was collected at planting and harvesting, and analysis done at Bvumbwe Research Station. Yield and yield components data was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT software where means were separated using LSD. Gross margin profit was calculated as the difference between the cost of production and the selling price. Root yield results showed that the different varieties responded to fertilizer application differently. However, increasing fertilizer levels had no significant effect on root yield within varieties. On economic analysis, results show that sweetpotato can be profitably produced with no use of fertilizer. Adequate management thus; using high quality planting material of improved varieties, timely planting and weeding is adequate to support profitable yields of OFSP without fertilizer. However, the trial needs to be repeated in areas with degraded soils, but with known deficient soil elements.
Keywords: Dry matter content, palatability test, special blend fertilizer, gross margin analysis
Evaluation of Yellow Flesh Cassava Genotypes for Total Carotenoids, Dry Matter, Cyanogenic potential and Yield at the Coastal Savanna Zone in Ghana
E. O. Adu1, G. Amernope2, E. Parkes3, K.J. Taah1, and P. Agu-Asare1
1Department of Crop Science, School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast
2Nuclear Agriculture Research CENTRE, BNARI, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya, Accra
3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan-Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitamin A deficiency related diseases are a major problem in sub-Saharan Africa and Mutagenesis was used to develop high yellow flesh cassava varieties to combat these challenges. Eight yellow flesh cassava (YFC) mutants were checked with one yellow flesh cassava from IITA (70593) and one white flesh (160F), using RCBD in four replications, within the Coastal Savannah Zone in Ghana. Total carotenoids (TC), dry matter content (DMC), fresh root yield (FRY) and cyanogenic potential (CP) of ten cassava genotypes were accessed with I-check, oven dried and alkaline titration methods, respectively. The TC ranged from 1.77-10.38μg/g. Genotypes 6A, 12B, 14B and 11A had the highest TC values of 10.38, 10.10, 9.83 and 9.57μg/g above the IITA and 160F checks with 7.97 and 1.77μg/g, respectively. The dry matter and fresh root yield ranged from 38.12-15.53% and 21.53-55.97t/ha, respectively. The CP range (25.9-37.3mgHN/kg) of all genotypes was lower than innocuous value of 50mgHCN/kg, and therefore, safe for consumption. YFC genotypes 6A (150579), 12B (150306), 11B (151538), 5B (151006) and 11A (150029) were selected for other ecological trials and possible release to Ghanaian farmers.
Keywords: Carotene, cyanogenic potential, dry matter, genotypes, yellow flesh cassava
Yield and Food Quality Characteristics of Hybrid Cassava (Manihot esculentum Crantz) as Influenced by Genotypes and Plant Density in Nsukka Agro-Ecology, South-East Nigeria
1Eze, S. C., 2Omeje, T. E. and 3Nwafor, I. C.
1Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
3Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka
3Department of Agricultural Technology, Enugu State Polytechnic, Iwollo, Enugu State , Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Two field experiments and one laboratory analysis for cassava roots were conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN). The cassava genotypes developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike; TMS 01-693, 01-1412, 01-1371, 01-1368, 305 72 and TME 419 maintained in the Faculty experimental farm were used. Each field experiment was a factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The cassava sticks were cut 30cm long and planted at three different plant spacings (1.0m, 0.9m and 0.8m). Data were collected on growth and yield parameters for field experiments, while the cassava roots were subjected to biochemical analysis for food quality characterization. At two months after planting, spacing of 0.8m and 0.9m with plant density of 12, 250 and 11, 111plants ha-1 respectively, significantly (p≤ 0.05) increased plant height, but reduced stem weight, root weight, number of storage root and number of commercial roots. Spacing × genotype interaction significantly affected morphological characteristics and yield components of the six cassava genotypes. The nutrient and anti-nutrient composition varied among the six genotypes with hydrogen cyanide content in each genotype above the 10mg/100g equivalent dry matter approved by World Health Organization (WHO). It is evident in this study that most of the cassava Genotypes we consume contain high cyanide contents over and above the safety limit proposed by the WHO.
Keywords: Cassava genotypes, Plant density, Food quality, Agro-ecology
Suitability of Soils around and within Lake Obayi Basin for Cassava Production, at Nsukka, Nigeria
Asadu, C.L.A. and Ezike, M. N.
Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study evaluated the fertility status of soils of lake Iyi-Obayi basin area in Nguru Nsukka, South-East, Nigeria, and their suitability for cassava production using the FAO land evaluation procedure. Soil samples were collected from 0-20cm, 20-40cm depths using an auger from four points [A = Adjacent grassland, B = Adjacent fallow land, C= Adjacent grassland, D = Adjacent forest; points A and C were at opposite sides of the basin (≈ 300 m apart) outside the basin and two other samples were collected using auger from 0-20cm depth inside the dry basin (LA = cultivated land, LB = uncultivated land)]. Ten core samples were collected from the depth of 0-20cm (eight from the soils outside the basin and two inside the basin). The soils were analyzed following standard laboratory procedures. The sand fraction dominated the particle size fractions, but all the soils were sandy loam and suitable for cassava production. The pH, SOM and total N values and available P, Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, CEC, H+, Na+ and K+ were also within the limits adjudged suitable for cassava production. Though the trend in fertility status of the study area was LB> A> D> B> C> LA, matching the cassava requirements and the current fertility status and climate, the entire area was classified as highly suitable (S1) for cassava production.
Keywords: Lake basin, soil fertility, suitability, cassava
Preliminary Evaluation of Yellow-Fleshed Cassava Genotypes in Uganda
Kanju, E.1, Tumwegamire, S.1, Ntawuruhunga, P.2, Kawuki, R.3, Esuma, W.3 and Nuwamanya, E.3
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kampala, Uganda
21International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Lusaka, Zambia
3 National Crop Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Kampala, Uganda
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Cassava is the second staple food crop after banana in Uganda. However, all the officially released varieties are white-fleshed, implying that they are very low in beta-carotene content, the precursor of a key micronutrient – vitamin A. The enhanced content of beta-carotene (provitamin A) in yellow-fleshed cassava provides sufficient opportunity to sustainably address vitamin A malnutrition through deployment of provitamin A cassava varieties. Twenty-five promising yellow-fleshed genotypes were evaluated together with two white-fleshed checks under a preliminary yield evaluation trial at Sendusu, Uganda during the 2020/2021 second rain season. Dry matter content was estimated using the specific gravity method, whereas total carotenoid content (TCC) was estimated using the iCheck tool. Significant differences (p<0.001) were detected among the genotypes for cassava brown streak leaf incidence (CBSDI), cassava mosaic incidence (CMDI), dry matter content (DMC) and root necrosis incidence (RNI). Differences among the genotypes for TCC were also significant (p<0.05). Thirteen genotypes had no CBSDI, whereas, the highest CBSDI (80.0%) was recorded on MM19/0273. All the genotypes were resistant to CMD (showing no CMDI), except four (MM19/0164, MM19/0212, MM19/0328, and MM19/0329). DMC ranged from 33.5% (MM19/0094) to 41.5% (MM19/0328). Marketable dry root yield (MDRY) ranged from 1.8t/ha (MM19/0208) to 9.1t/ha (MM19/0133). Five genotypes had no RNI (MM19/0023, MM19/0101, MM19/0163, MM19/0229 and MM19/0273). TCC ranged from 4.6μg/100g (MM19/0253) to 10.0μg/100g fresh weight (MM19/0078, MM19/0094, MM19/0155 and MM19/0273). Broad-sense heritability estimates were high for all the traits, ranging from 0.67 (MDRY) to 0.94 (CMDI), implying that rapid genetic gains can be achieved using phenotypic recurrent selection. Twelve genotypes were selected for further advanced evaluation: MM19/0023, MM19/0090, MM19/0101, MM19/0129, MM19/0155, MM19/0164, MM19/0212, MM19/0217, MM19/0229, MM19/0258, MM19/0268 and MM19/0329).
Keywords: Yellow-fleshed cassava, cassava brown streak, cassava mosaic
Yield performance of breeding clones of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in agro-ecologies of Kwilu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mouritala Sikirou1,2*, Kuhima Mbuta Mwangu3, Paterne Agre4, Mamy Bizunga3, Eric Musungayi3, Willy Tata-Hangy1, Clerisse Casinga5, Pierre Miafuntila5, Donat Mukendi6, Tony Bakelana3, Enoch Achigan-Dako2
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, PO Box 4163, Avenue Haut Congo, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
2Laboratory of Genetics, Biotechnology and Seed Science (GBioS), Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey Calavi, Benin, PO Box 2549, Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin
3Institut National pour l’étude et la Recherche Agronomiques, Kiyaka, Democratic Republic of Congo
4International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria
3Institut National pour l’étude et la Recherche Agronomiques, Mvuazi, Democratic Republic of Congo
3Institut National pour l’étude et la Recherche Agronomiques, Mulungu, Democratic Republic of Congo
5International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kalambo, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
6Institut National pour l’étude et la Recherche Agronomiques, Ngandajika, Democratic Republic of Congo
* Corresponding Author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.orgemail@example.com
Breeding is the most economic approach for controlling production constraints in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) smallholder farms. This study aims at assessing the cassava yield performance in the province of Kwilu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Three sets of trials were established using a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in two contrasting locations, upland savanna and valley forest agro-ecologies, across two cropping seasons. Fifteen agro-morphological traits were collected and used to evaluate the halfsib cassava progenies along with local cultivar Biele and improved variety TME 419 in different breeding stages. A high yield gap was recorded among the traits for all the genotypes across the target agro-ecologies. Irrespective of the trial set, high yields and yield-related traits were reported from forest valley ecology in comparison to upland savanna. High heritability was overview recorded for yield trait. Thus, the clones at the late selection stage will be recycled to target genetic gain, and therefore, improve yield trait in Kiyaka breeding program. Cassava yield gaps across ecologies varied from 32 to 83% depending on the genotype and trial. Overall, there are no significant difference between the clones and the improved variety TME 419, which consistently shows high yield across the trials. Therefore, this study emphasizes the opportunity offered by valley forest ecology for high yields in cassava production. However, there is an opportunity to target high yield fullsib clones by recycling the clones at late stage and checks to get elite varieties for these agroecologies zones, and therefore, improve Kiyaka’s breeding program.
Keywords: Breeding; DRC, Manihot esculenta, Upland savanna, Valley forest; Yield
Genetic Response of Cassava Varieties to Fertilization Regimes in the Northern part of Luapula Province in Zambia Sydney Mwamba 1,2,3*, Peter Kaluba 1,2, Dany Moualeu-Ngangue´ 1, Etti Winter 4, Martin Chiona 5 , Benson H. Chishala 6, Kalaluka Munyinda 2 and Hartmut Stützel 1
1Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2 D-30419 Hannover, Germany
2Department of Plant Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka P.O. Box 32379, Zambia
3Seed Control and Certification Institute, Chilanga, Lusaka P.O. Box 350199, Zambia
4Institute for Environmental Economics and World Trade, Leibniz University of Hannover, Königsworther Platz 1, D-30167 Hannover, Germany
5Zambia Agriculture Research Institute, Root and Tuber Crops, Mansa P.O. Box 710129, Zambia
6Department of Soil Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka P.O. Box 32379, Zambia
*Corresponding Author’s email:smwamba18@gmailcom
Cassava or Manioc (Manihot Escalenta Crantz) is grown mostly by small resource-limited farmers throughout the tropics on low fertility soils with little or no fertilization and due to continuous mono-cropping with large exports of large potassium (K) export in the roots, Phosphorous(P) and nitrogen (N) is critical at different states of growth and need for NPK fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate three cassava genotypes response to fertilization under rain-fed conditions. A field experiment was conducted in a split-plot design for two consecutive seasons in the Mansa district of the Luapula Province of Northern Zambia in the highly weathered Chromi-haplic Acrisol soils. Two fertilization regimes; control and NPK fertilizer were the main plots, while three varieties (Mweru-V1, Bangweulu-V2 and Katobamputa (local)-V3) were subplots. Periodic measurements of leaf area index, light interception, yield and yield components from 75 days after planting (DAP) up to 410 DAP and daily weather measurements of data were recorded. Fertilization significantly increased the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and light extinction coefficient (K) in two seasons compared to the control. Significant fertilization regimes and varietal effects were observed for seasonal LAI, stem yield, root yield, biomass, harvest index (HI), tuber number, root diameter, plant height and SPAD (chlorophyll index). Significant fertilization × year interaction effects were observed on root yield, yield components and physiological performance. Variety × year interaction was significant for seasonal LAI, stem yield, harvest index and plant height and no three-way interactions were observed on all the traits. NPK fertilizer treatments may be adopted to increase the response of cassava varietal yield, physiology and morphological traits in low soil nutrient conditions under high rain-fed conditions.
Keywords: Light interception, radiation use efficiency, leaf area index, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium
Diversity, Trait Preferences, Management and Utilization of Yams Landraces (Dioscorea species): An Orphan Crop in DR Congo
Idris I. Adejumobi1,2, Paterne A. Agre2*, Didy O. Onautshu1, Joseph G. Adheka1, Mokonzi G. Banbanota1, Jean-Claude L. Monzenga3, Joseph L. Komoy1, and Inacio M. Cipriano1
1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Kisangani, Kisangani, DR Congo
2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
3Institut Facultaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Yangambi (IFA-YBI) Kisangani DR Congo
*Corresponding Author’s email: P.Agre@cgiar.org
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is cultivated in many villages of DR Congo as a means to sustain food security and alleviate poverty. However, the extent of the existing diversity has not been studied in details thus, considered as an orphan. A survey covering 540 farmers in 54 villages was conducted in six major yam growing territories covering three provinces in DR Congo to investigate the diversity, management and utilization of yam landraces using pre-elaborate questionnaires. Subject to synonymy, a total of 67 landraces clones from five different species were recorded. Farmers’ challenges limiting yam production were poor tuber qualities (69%), harvest pest attack (7%), difficulty in harvesting (6%), and poor soil status (6%). The overall diversity was moderate among the recorded yam germplasm maintained at the household level (1.32) and variability exist in diversity amongst the territories and provinces. Farmers’ in territories of Tshopo and Mongala provinces maintained higher level of germplasm diversity (2.79 and 2.77) compared to the farmers in territories of Bas-Uélé (1.67). Some yam landraces had limited abundance and distribution due to loss of production interest in many villages attributable to poisons contained hence, resulting in possible extinction. Farmers’ most preferred seed source for cultivation were backyard (43%) and exchange with neighboring farmers (31%) with the objective of meeting food security and generating income. In villages where yam production is expanding, farmers are relying on landraces with good tuber qualities and high yield even though they are late maturing. This study revealed the knowledge of yam genetic diversity, constraints to production and farmers’ preferences criteria as a guide for collection and conservation of yam genetic resources for yam improvement intervention.
Keywords: Dioscorea, DR Congo, Famers’ preference criteria, Landrace diversity, Yam
Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on Flowering, Yield and Yield attributing Characters of Cocoyam species
Abah, Simon Peter
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In order to generate genetic diversity and quality yield among cocoyam species, a cytokinin (6- benzyladenine) and a derivative anti-ethylene compound (silver thiosulphate) were used as biostimulating agents to promote vegetative growth, induce flowering and enhance quality yield on two species of cocoyam. The proportion of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) used was 0 (control), 50ppm and 100ppm applied foliarly at 4weeks after planting. The varieties used for the study were NCe001 and NCe002 (Colocasia esculenta) and NXs002 (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), which were obtained from the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications. Agronomic data were collected and analysed using GenSTAT and R statistical package. The result evaluated at 6 months after planting showed that PGRs has significant (P<0.5) effect on the yield and yield components of cocoyam. It also showed significant (P<0.05) effect on vegetative growth traits like plant height, colar diameter, biomass, leaf area and number of leaves. But has no significant (P>0.05) effect on the induction of flowering. There was influence of genotypic differences among the species, with NCe002 performing best for growth and yield. The result showed that the cormel of Xanthosoma spp produced higher starch and dry matter content than their corm, while, Colocasia spp produced higher starch and dry matter content in the corm than the cormel. The non-induction of flowering recorded in the experiment could be attributed to limited dosage of the PGR and age dependent physiological mechanism of the crop. Interestingly, the correlation analysis between vegetative growth and the yield attributes revealed a negative significant correlation coefficient of the vegetative growth on yield and this simply implied that increased growth did not mean high yielding. From the findings of this study, a higher dosage of PGR on cocoyam at a very early stage of growth for optimum effect on flowering is therefore recommended.
Keywords: Flowering, 6-benzyladenine, silver thiosulphate, yield, cocoyam
Development of transgenic potato with resistance to bacterial wilt using PFLP and EFR genes
1Webi, E.N., 1Magembe, E.M., 2 Okogbenin, E. and 1Ghislain, M.
Emails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease found in 74% of farms in Kenya. Chemical, biological, and cultural control methods have proven to be limited or not successful. Conventional breeding has had limited success due to lack of sources of stable and broad- spectrum resistance. Genetic engineering using pattern recognition receptors (PRR) has resulted
in increased resistance to BW
bioengineered the Kenyan farmer-preferred potato variety ‘Shangi’ using the pflp gene. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of 3,000 internodal potato explants was performed.
1International Potato Center
2African Agricultural Technology Foundation
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Africa is mainly grown by small-holder farmers. In Kenya, it’s
estimated to provide employment to more than 2.5 million people.
. Plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) from sweet pepper and
elongation factor receptor (EFR) from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to enhance resistance against bacterial diseases such as banana Xanthomonas wilt and potato BW,
Regenerants were selected on kanamycin producing 270 putative transgenic
events. PCR confirmed 94 events to be positive for pflp gene and negative for left and right border backbone vector sequences. Quantitative expression of pflp from three biological repeats of 23 greenhouse-grown transgenic events led to the identification of low, medium, and high transgene expressers. Bioassays using a local strain of R. solanacearum revealed that two high transgene expressers were exhibiting higher tolerance to R. solanacearum than the moderately resistant variety Cruza-148. Additional bioassays and yield analysis are underway to confirm these results which indicate that the introduction of the pflp gene into potato enhanced tolerance
to bacterial wilt.
eywords: Bacterial Wilt, Genetic engineering, Plant Recognition Receptors, Ralstonia solanacearum
Assessment of Bio-fortified cassava genotypes for total Carotenoid content, Yield and Yield related Components at Advance Breeding Stage
Adebukola Ogungbesan, Kayode Olasupo, ThankGod Ogwuche, Afolabi Agbona, Akpotuzor Patrick, Yinka Oladimeji, Olufemi Aina, Peter Iluebbey, Elizabeth Parkes and
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria Presenting author: email@example.com
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Proper understanding of genetic variability helps breeders to explore its effect during crop improvement. Hence, this study was aimed to assess genetic variability for yield components among twelve bio-fortified cassava genotypes at four research fields of IITA, (Ibadan, Mokwa, Ikenne and Ubiaja) Nigeria. Nine bio-fortified cassava genotype with three checks were arranged in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at Advance breeding stage during the 2017/2018 cropping season. Data were collected on total carotene content (TCC), % dry matter content (DMC), dry root yield (DYLD), fresh yield (FYLD) and harvest index (HI). Data generated were analysed using R statistical software. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows significant differences for genotype and environment on all the traits studied (p<0.01). Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI) revealed significant differences for most of the characters studied except for fresh yield. The mean performance across locations shows that TCC ranged from 5.2 -13.8 (μg/g) and three genotypes gave the highest value (13.8 μg/g) (IITA- TMS-IKN160315, IITA-TMS-IKN160020 and IITA-TMS-IKN130010) each and IITA-TMS- IBA070377 had the least value (5.2 μg/g) with average value of 11.6 μg/g. Seven genotypes performed better than the mean value. Percentage dry matter content ranged from 22.5% to 31.2% for IITA-TMS-IKN140044 and IITA-TMS-IBA070337 respectively, fresh yield (FYLD) t/ha ranged from 13.0t/ha (IITA-TMS-IBA110841) to 31.0t/ha (IITA-TMS-IBA070377). Highest dry yield (t/ha) was recorded for IITA-TMS-IBA070377 (10.2t/ha) and IITA-TMS- IBA110841 had the least value (3.5t/ha). The study shows adequate genetic variability from which selection will bring about significant progress in cassava improvement programs.
Keyword: Bio-fortified, Genetic variability, Genotypes x Environment Interaction, Improvement Advance breeding stage
Advances in the Cassava Seed System in DR Congo using SAH (Semi-Autotrophic Hydroponics)
Adetoro Najimu1, Kajibwami Angel1, Kintche Kokou1, Nabahungu Leon1, ThankGod Ogwuche2, Mercy E. Diebiru-Ojo2 and Peter Kulakow2
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, President Olusegun Obasanjo Campus, Kalambo, DR Congo
2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: P.Kulakow@cgiar.org
Presenting Authors’ email: N.Adetoro@cgiar.org
Cassava is one of the main crops in DRC (70% of the cultivated land); its productivity is reduced by poor quality seed, pest and disease problems and inherent low seed multiplication rate of the crop. The threat of cassava brown streak disease is particularly important in Eastern DR Congo and a seed system that can economically produce quality planting materials is urgently needed. A new multiplication technology called SAH (semi-autotrophic hydroponics) has provided a means of rapid multiplication of cassava to support the seed system in DR Congo. SAH results in mass propagation of virus-free plants of tissue culture origin. It is a low-cost and easy to adapt technique suitable for commercial seed production. Thirty-one elite cassava clones were introduced to the SAH laboratory and evaluated for multiplication performance. SAH involves propagation of young shoots in transparent boxes and repeated cutting and rooting of young shoots. Plants are grown in a growth room with LED lighting at 26°C and a 14 hours day-length. Data on the number of plantlets cut, date, and plantlet survival were collected on each variety. Plantlets were transplanted to the field after two months in the lab. Field data were collected on survival, plant vigor, early growth and disease. Nine out of the 31 clones performed excellently in all the parameters evaluated. These clones include; NASE 14, IBA980002, IBA011097, IBA010040, Pwani, Mkumba, Okhumelela, MM961471 and KBH2002026. This study identified these varieties as candidates to explore for the cassava seed system development in DR Congo.
Keyword: SAH, cassava brown streak disease, seed system, LED lighting
Hybrid breeding – a new approach to sweetpotato improvement in Southern Africa
Godwill S. Makunde1, Maria I. Andrade1, Jose Ricardo2, Abilio Alvaro1, Gervancio Covele1, Mercy Kitavi3, Dorcus Gemenet3, Simon Heck3, Raul Eyzaguirre4, Bert De Boeck4, Jan Low3, Hannele Lindqvist-Krueze4, Wolfgang Gruneberg4 and Hugo Campos4
1International Potato Center, Av. FPLM 2698, Maputo, Mozambique
2Instituto de Investigação Agraria de Mozambique, Av. FPLM 2698, Maputo, Mozambique, 3International Potato Center, ILRI Campus, Nairobi, Kenya
4International Potato Center, Av. La Molina 1895, La Molina, Lima Perú Corresponding Authors’ email: G.Makunde@cgiar.org
The overall objective of sweetpotato breeding in CIP Southern Africa Platform is drought tolerance in bio-fortified sweetpotato that meet preferred product profiles of member countries. Two distinct populations were maintained in Mozambique separated by spatial geography (one in Gurue, Central Mozambique, and the other one at Umbeluzi, Southern Mozambique). The population in Gurue was rich in beta-carotene, Fe, and Zn introduced from the PZ/PJ populations from CIP-Lima. The Umbeluzi population represented a drought-tolerant collected from dry areas of Mozambique and the SADC regions. A total of 138 parental clones (69 each from Gurue and Umbeluzi) were assembled to represent a reference collection for diversity studies in 2018. The diversity analysis was carried out with 62 microsatellites on the 138 parental clones. The population structure (K = 3) showed existence of two distinct gene pools with a few admixtures. The mega-clones (Tanzania, 199062.1, ‘CEMSA’, and ‘Resisto’) also used in the study had a close relationship with the Gurue population. Both mega-clones and Gurue population had a CIP-Lima origin or history in the crossing blocks at CIP-Lima. The few admixtures observed a result of breeding efforts in Mozambique where released varieties were selected for inclusion in both crossing blocks (Gurue and Umbeluzi). Based on genetic distance, 100 parents were selected to constitute a full diallel crossing block at Umbeluzi Research Station in 2019 resulting in the first hybrid development combining drought tolerance and nutritional traits together. According to our definition in the sweetpotato, hybrids are a result of crosses between gene pools.
Keywords: Hybrid breeding, diallel, gene pool, drought tolerance, product profile
Searching for novel drought tolerant clones for population improvement in Mozambique using unmanned aerial vehicles
Godwill S. Makunde1, Maria I. Andrade1, Jose Ricardo2, Gervancio Covele1, Omowumi Idowu1, David Ramirez3, Hildo Lozya3, Bert De Boeck3, Raul Ezyraguirre3, Jan Low4, Hannele Lindqvist-Krueze3, Wolfgang J. Gruneberg3 Simon Heck4, Hugo Campos3
1International Potato Center, Av. FPLM 2698, Maputo, Mozambique
2Instituto de Investigação Agraria de Mozambique, Av. FPLM 2698, Maputo, Mozambique 3International Potato Center, ILRI Campus
4International Potato Center, Av. La Molina 1895, La Molina, Lima Perú Corresponding Authors’ email: G.Makunde@cgiar.org
Approximately 95% of sweetpotato production areas are rainfed and frequently face drought in Southern Africa. Breeding for drought tolerance remains a viable proposition for smallholder farmers. A total of 200 clones comprising breeding clones, released varieties and landraces were evaluated to identify valuable morphological, physiological and agronomic traits associated with high yield and quality under drought environments. The first field trial was laid out at Umbeluzi Research Station in 2019 with a subset of 24 genotypes replicated two times in five treatments namely; early-season drought, mid-season drought, late-season drought, optimum irrigation and optimum irrigation and fertilizer. The second and third field trials were established at Chilembene farm and Umbeluzi Research Station with a full set of 200 and subset of 120 genotypes respectively replicated two times in late-season drought and optimum irrigation treatments at each location. Row-column designs guided trial layouts. Canopy temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, chlorophyll index and canopy cover were registered by sensors assembled in unmanned aerial vehicles. Yield and yield components were measured at harvest, while nutritional quality was determined via near infra-red spectrometry. Varieties, Irene and Bela were identified as early maturing. Xiadlaxakau, a farmer variety was good in all treatments because of continuous production of storage roots. Canopy temperatures were warmer in the late-drought treatment compared to optimum irrigation and optimum irrigation and fertilizer treatments. Top 10 clones with cooler canopies under drought and achieved higher yield in irrigated and drought treatments were identified for later use in the breeding program.
Keywords: Sweetpotato, drought, drones, canopy temperature, yield
Late Blight Resistance Biotech Potato
1Magembe, E., 1Makoko, I., 1Irukani, Q., 1Webi, E., 2Barekye, A., 2Arinaitwe, A., 2Baguma, G., 2Mutebi, D., 2Wasukira, A., 3Li H., 3Suping, Z. and 1Ghislain, M.
1International Potato Center, Old Naivasha Road, P.O. Box 25171, Nairobi 00603, Kenya 2National Agricultural Research Organization, Plot 3, Lugard Avenue, P.O. Box 295, Entebbe, Uganda
3Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt blvd, Nashville, TN 37209, United States of America
Considered responsible for one million deaths in Ireland and widespread famine in the European continent during the 1840s, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, remains the most devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with about 15-30% annual yield loss in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting mainly smallholder farmers. We show here that the transfer of three resistance (R) genes from wild relatives [RB, Rpi-blb2 from Solanum bulbocastanum and Rpi-vnt1.1 from S. venturii] into potato varieties ‘Desiree’, ‘Victoria’, ‘Tigoni’ and ‘Shangi’ provided complete resistance in the glasshouse and field over several seasons. We observed that the stacking of the three R genes produced a high frequency of transgenic events with resistance to late blight. In the field, 16 resistant transgenic events from the potato varieties ‘Desiree’ and ‘Victoria’ grew normally without showing pathogen damage and without any fungicide spray, whereas, their non-transgenic equivalents were rapidly killed. Yields of two transgenic events from ‘Desiree’ and ‘Victoria’ grown without fungicide to reflect small-scale farm holders were estimated to be 29t/ha and 45t/ha, respectively. This represents a three to four-fold increase over the national average. T-DNA insertion characterization by next generation sequencing led us to identify 4 lead transgenic events with ideal recombination sites. Lead Event Vic.172 was assessed in 2 multi-location confined field trials for regulatory studies where we didn’t observe any significant differences with its non-transgenic Victoria. A field detection tool was also developed for future tracking of Vic.172 once released. Thus, these late blight resistant potato varieties, which are the farmers’ preferred, could be rapidly adopted and bring significant income to smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa.
Keywords: Late blight resistance, Phytophthora infestans
Variety replacement following Excellence in Breeding Procedures in Mozambique
Maria I. Andrade1, Godwill S. Makunde1, Jose Ricardo2, Abilio Alvaro1, Gervancio Covele1, Abdul Naico1, Jan Low3, Raul Eyzaguirre4, Bert De Boeck4, Hannele Lindqvist- Krueze4, Wolfgang Gruneberg4 and Hugo Campos4
1International Potato Center, Av. FPLM 2698, Maputo, Mozambique
2Instituto de Investigação Agraria de Mozambique, Av. FPLM 2698, Maputo, Mozambique 3International Potato Center, ILRI Campus, Nairobi, Kenya
4International Potato Center, Av. La Molina 1895, La Molina, Lima Perú Corresponding Authors’ email: G.Makunde@cgiar.org
Presenting Authors’ email: M.Andrade@cgiar.org
The objective of variety release was to increase the number of varieties on the market to allow farmers have a wide choice for drought tolerant varieties that meet their preferences. A total of 16 trials were evaluated in the targeted three major agro-ecologies of Mozambique – high- and medium- rainfall areas and dry areas to measure stability, nutritional values and yield for a period of four years. The trials were laid out in a randomised complete block design with two replications at on-station and mother-baby design for on-farm trials. Yield and yield component traits, nutritional quality traits including; anthocyanins, beta-carotene levels determined via near infra-red spectrometry [NIRS] and x-ray fluorescence [XRF] and culinary traits were measured on 80 clones (including 4 check clones) which had shown best performance in advanced trials. The collected data was analyzed for stability across the agroecologies using the Finlay and Wilkinson (1963), Wricke’s ecovalence, Cultivar Superiority, AMMI models and GGE biplots. Selection index was applied to select best clones that combined agronomic traits, stability parameters, nutritional data and culinary tastes better than check clones (Irene, Sumaia, Caelan and Bita). Five clones namely MGSGR15063-3 (Super Margaret, purple-fleshed), MGSGR15075-10 (Olga, purple-fleshed), MUSG15099-2 (Ken, orange-fleshed), MUSG15023-8 (Rachel, orange-fleshed) and MUSG012081-3 (Palmira, orange-fleshed) were identified to meet high yield across environments with stable performance, high dry matter, high levels of beta- carotene, high anthocyanin levels as well as meeting consumer preference for culinary traits. The five varieties were submitted to variety release committee to consider commercialization in Mozambique in 2019.
Keywords: Sensory panels, micronutrients, sweetpotato, stability, storage root yield
Ginger germplasm classification and identification of morphological markers related to rhizome yield
Uchechukwu Paschal Chukwudi1, 2*, Sydney Mavengahama1 and Funso Raphael Kutu3
1Food Security and Safety Niche Area Research Group, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University P/Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2745, South Africa 2Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria 3School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Mpumalanga, Mbombela, South Africa *Presenting Author’s emails: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a rhizomatous plant with wide use in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Its global market is projected to reach $4.8 billion by 2027. To meet this demand, there is a need to identify high yielding genotypes with desirable attributes. Ten ginger genotypes were accessed for two years for their yield and phytoconstituents attributes under randomized complete block design with three replicates. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the genotypes based on 8 morphological attributes and 15 phytoconstituents contents. The results showed three clusters and two outliers. The dendrogram identified cluster B with genotypes KD-2 and EN-1 as the best rhizome yield with the highest oil content. Pseudo-stem diameter (0.808), leaf width (0.743), plant height (0.722), and the number of leaves plant-1 (0.641) showed the highest correlation coefficients with ginger rhizome yield. The path coefficient analysis showed that 70.6% of the contribution of the pseudo-stem diameter to the rhizome yield occurred through its indirect effect from the leaf width (47.2%) and plant height (23.4%). These markers should be considered in selecting high yielding ginger genotypes for production.
Keywords: Characterization, genetic diversity, path coefficient analysis, yield improvement Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Genetic Diversity Studies of Provitamin-A Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Sierra Leone
Blay, E.T2., Asante, I.K2., Danquah, A2., Ifie, B. E2.,
1Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box, 1313, Freetown, Sierra Leone 2West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI), University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana 3International Institute Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Oyo Road, Ibadan, Nigeria 4Department of Plant and Environmental Biology, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana 5Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone
Understanding of genetic diversity among a breeding population is an important requirement for crop improvement as it allows for the selection of diverse parental combinations for enhancing genetic gain. The study aimed to characterize 183 pro-vitamin A cassava accessions and 5 released varieties using morphological traits, total carotenoid content and SNP markers to develop a collection for conservation and further use in our breeding program. Both morphological parameters and 5,634 SNP markers were used to assess the diversity among the cassava accessions. Data were subjected to different statistical packages; SAS 9.4, XLSTAT (2010), power marker (Liu & Muse, 2005), GenAlex version 6.41 (Peakall and Smouse, 2006), STATA13 and R-software for the following; multiple regressions analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), correlation analysis, cluster analysis, Geno summary, polymorphic information content (PIC), Mantel matrix test and pairwise genetic distance (identity-by-state, IBS) analyses. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for most of the traits measured. The first three PCs together accounted for 56.67% of the total phenotypic variation based on yield and yield characters among the 188 accessions. The present study showed that pro-vitamin A cassava accessions in Sierra Leone have moderate to high diversity based on morphological and molecular assessment studies. The similarity index among the 188 cassava accessions grouped them into 7 and 9 distinct clusters based on morphological and molecular analyses respectively. A significant positive but low correlation (r = 0.104; p < 0.034) was observed between the two dendrograms.
Keywords:Manihot esculenta accession, morphological traits, total carotenoid content, collection SNP markers
Kulakow, P3., Rabbi, I3., Abberton, M3., Dixon, A3., Conteh, A1., Kamara, J.S5.,
Mensah, H.K4. and Whyte, J.B.A3.
Genome-Wide association study for tuber yield and mosaic virus in white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata) using Genome-wide Association Scan
Paterne A. Agre1*, Prince E. Norman2, Robert Asiedu1, Patrick Adebola
1 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Oyo Road, Ibadan 200001, Oyo State, Nigeria
2 Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute, PMB 1313, Tower Hill, Freetown, Sierra Leone
Improvement of tuber yield and tolerance to viruses are priority objectives in white Guinea yam breeding programs. However, phenotypic selection for these traits is quite challenging due to phenotypic plasticity and cumbersome screening of phenotypic-induced variations. This study assessed quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and the underlying candidate genes related to tuber yield per plant (TYP) and yam mosaic virus (YMV) tolerance in a panel of 406 white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata) breeding lines using a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Population structure analysis using 5,581 SNPs differentiated the 406 genotypes into seven distinct sub-groups based delta K. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis using the multi-locus linear model (mrMLM) identified seventeen QTN regions significant for TYP and five for YMV with various effects. The seveteen QTNs were detected on nine chromosomes, while the five QTNs were identified on five chromosomes. We identified variants responsible for predicting higher yield and low virus severity scores in the breeding panel through the marker-effect prediction. Gene annotation for the significant SNP loci identified several essential putative genes associated with the growth and development of tuber yield and those that code for tolerance to mosaic virus. Application of different multi-locus models of GWAS identified 22 QTNs. Our results provide valuable insight for marker validation and deployment for tuber yield and mosaic virus tolerance in white yam breeding. The information on SNP variants and genes from the present study would fast-track the application of genomics-informed selection decisions in breeding white Guinea yam for rapid introgression of the targeted traits through markers validation.
Keywords: Genetic diversity, population structure, GWAS, SNP markers, white Guinea yam
Association mapping of plant sex and cross-compatibility related traits in a diverse set of water yam (Dioscorea alata L.) cultivars
Asrat Asfaw1*, Jean M. Mondo 1, 2, 3, Paterne A. Agre 1, Patrick Adebola1, Malachy O. Akoroda 4 , and Robert Asiedu1
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan 5320, Nigeria
2Institute of Life and Earth Sciences, Pan African University, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
3Department of Crop Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique (UEA), Bukavu 3323, Democratic Republic of Congo
4Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.com
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) species are predominantly dioecious, with male and female flowers borne on separate individuals.Cross-pollination is, therefore, essential for gene flow among and within yam species to achieve breeding objectives. Understanding genetic mechanisms underlying sex determination and cross-compatibility is crucial for planning a successful hybridization program. This study used the association mapping approach for identifying genomic regions linked to plant sex and cross-compatibility in a diverse set of water yam (Dioscorea alata L.) cultivars. We identified 54 markers linked to flower sex determination, among which 53 markers were on chromosome 6 and one on chromosome 11. Our result ascertained that D. alata is characterized by the male heterogametic sex determination system (XX/XY). The cross-compatibility indices, average crossability rate (ACR) and percentage high crossability (PHC), were controlled by loci on chromosomes 1, 6 and 17. Of the significant loci, SNPs located on chromosomes 1 and 17 were the most promising for ACR and PHC, respectively, and should be validated for use in D. alata hybridization activities to predict cross-compatibility success. A total of 61 putative gene/protein families with direct or indirect influence on plant reproduction were annotated in chromosomic regions controlling the target traits. Our result provides valuable insights into the genetic control of D. alata sexual reproduction. It opens an avenue for developing genomic tools for predicting hybridization success in water yam breeding programs.
Genetic variability for Pro-Vitamin A carotenoids and dry matter content in West African cassava populations introduced in Uganda
F.B.Gwandu1, R. Edema1,P.Gibson1,S.Mukasa1, and W.Esuma2
1College of Agriculture, Makerere University P.O. Box 7062 Kampala Uganda
2National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI) P. 0 Box 7084 Kampala, Uganda
Corresponding Author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops in Africa as a cheap source of carbohydrates, though deficient in micronutrients. In Uganda, cassava ranks second in production after banana. Over dependence on cassava-based diets may result to Vitamin A deficiency. To improve the nutrition status of cassava, biofortification breeding has been employed in Uganda, though the release of Pro-vitamin A cassava varieties has been constrained by a narrow genetic base due to virus diseases like CBSD and CMD and low genetic gain due to negative relationship between dry matter content (DMC) and total carotenoids content (TCC). With regards to West African (WA) genotypes introduced to Uganda, therefore, the objective of this study is to assess genetic diversity between and within the Ugandan and WA genotypes for selection of Provitamin A carotenoids and DMC. To reveal the diversity, the 860 WA yellow roots were assessed for genetic variability and compared to 32 Ugandan yellow clones. Phenotypic characterization was based on TCC and DMC. Variation of 19355 SNPs markers for the introductions was assessed and compared to phenotypic data. Hence, the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) reveals that there is 59.6% genetic diversity for each cluster. TCC varied from 3.6 to 15.11μg/100g and correlated negatively (R2 = -0.48) with DMC which ranged from 15.5 to 43.6%. The first six Principal components (PC) cumulatively explained 80% of the total phenotypic variation among WA clones. The introductions from the WA to Uganda will broaden the genetic base by adding useful alleles.
Keywords: Genetic diversity, SNP molecular markers, Pro-vitamin A and Dry matter content
Genome-wide association mapping identifies novel polymorphisms linked to Cassava bacteria blight resistance and Dry matter content
Siraj Ismail Kayondo1, Adenike D Ige1, Ikpan Smith1, Kayode Ogunpaimo1, Kenny Nafiu1, Chiedozie Egesi123, Peter Kulakow1 and Ismail Rabbi Yusuf1
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria
2National Root Crops Resources Research Insititute (NRCRI)
3Cornell University, International Programs, Ithaca, NY
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is a bacterial pathogen that causes cassava bacterial blight (CBB), a severe foliar disease of cassava, especially during drought conditions. Considering climate change, understanding the genetic basis of CBB through genome-wide studies is of paramount importance. To unveil the genetic architecture of resistance to cassava bacterial blight disease and dry matter content (DMC), we utilised a diverse panel of 1035 cassava clones. The panel was evaluated across four environments in Nigeria under field conditions and genotyped using 81,111 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Trait-marker associations were performed using different mixed models that controlled for population structure and relatedness among cassava clones. Significant polymorphisms were detected on chromosomes 11and 14 for CBB severity at 3 and 6 months After planting (MAP) and chromosomes 1 and 15 for DMC using multi-environment data. We also recorded location-specific QTLs associated to CBB severity in our single environment analysis. These identified novel loci linked to CBB are associated with Cysteine-rich transmembrane CYSTM domains that positively impact stress-tolerance and resistance of deleterious substances. Developing cassava genotypes carrying multiple copies of these favourable alleles would boost marker-assisted breeding efforts in sub–Saharan Africa, where the crop is vital for more than a billion people.
Morphological and molecular assessment of genetic diversity in some yam (Dioscorea species) landraces
Saheed Alarape,1,2, Rasheed O. Awodoyin1,Michael Abberton2*, Faloye Benjamin2 and
1University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria,
2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria,
*Corresponding Authors email: M.Abberton@cgiar.org
Yam (Dioscorea specie) consist of about 600 species with only 6 species mostly used as food yam. New landraces have been cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa with little or no information on their identities. However, information on these landraces will serve as a genetic tool for crop improvement. This study assessed the morphological and molecular characterisation of the newly collected yam landraces for genetic diversity. One hundred accessions, comprising Dioscorea rotundata (83), Dioscorea abyssinica (16) and Dioscorea cayenensis (1) sourced from Benin Republic were planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated twice, in Ibadan during the 2018 cropping season. Data were recorded on quantitative and qualitative traits and e subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA), and a total of 13,338 DArTseq-SNP markers were used to reveal the pattern of genetic diversity within the accessions. All traits contribute to the first three principal components which account for 66% of the observed phenotypic variation. The accessions were grouped into four phenotypically distinct clusters with members of the cluster having high phenotypic similarities. Heterozygosity values of the SNPs ranged from 0.00 to 0.75 with mean of 0.03. The maximum distance root was 0.15, while the branch length ranged from 5.8×10-5 to 10.13 in the cladogram tree. Principal component analysis based on the SNP markers showed that the three component axes contributed 36.4% of the total genetic variance observed in the accessions. The genetic relationship shows that all the accessions were clustered in five different groups according to their geographical sources. The most diverse accessions were TDr-5260 with the longest spines, TDr-5193 with the highest number of leaves and tuber width, TDr-5262 had the largest leaf width, while TDc-4695 had the longest petiole length. There was a high morphological variation in the accessions studied. The low heterozygosity of SNP markers observed in this study further buttress the self-pollinating nature of yam.
Optimized protocol for in vitro pollen germination in yam (Dioscorea spp.)
Jean M. Mondo1,2,3, Paterne A. Agre1,*, Robert Asiedu1, Malachy O. Akoroda4
and Asrat Asfaw1
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan 5320, Nigeria
2Institute of Life and Earth Sciences, Pan African University, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
3Department of Crop Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique (UEA), Bukavu 3323, Democratic Republic of Congo
4Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.com
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) plants are mostly dioecious and sometimes monoecious. Low, irregular, and asynchronous flowering of the genotypes are critical problems in yam breeding. Selecting suitable pollen parents and preserving yam pollen for future use are potential means of controlling these constraints and optimizing hybridization practice in yam breeding programs. However, implementing such procedures requires a robust protocol for pollen collection and viability testing to monitor pollen quality in the field and in storage. This study, therefore, aimed at optimizing the pollen germination assessment protocol for yam. The standard medium composition was stepwisely modified, the optimal growth condition was tested, and in vivo predictions were made. This study showed that the differences in yam pollen germination percentage are primarily linked to the genotype and growing conditions (i.e., medium viscosity, incubation temperature, and time to use) rather than the medium composition. The inclusion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the culture medium caused 67–75% inhibition of germination in D. alata. Although the in vivo fertilization was dependent on female parents, the in vitro germination test predicted the percentage fruit set at 25.2–79.7% and 26.4–59.7% accuracy for D. rotundata and D. alata genotypes, respectively. This study provides a reliable in vitro yam pollen germination protocol to support pollen management and preservation efforts in yam breeding.
Keywords: Brewbaker and Kwack medium, D. alata, D. rotundata, pollen viability and storage, in vivo fertilization
Evaluation of 12 Biofortified Cassava Genotypes for Yield Characteristics and Total Carotenoids in a Varietal Release Trial
Elizabeth Parkes1, Joshua Faruna1, Oluwaseyi Toyinbo1, Patrick Akpotuzor1, Bukola Ogungbesan1, Prasad Peteti1, Afolabi Agbona1, Ismail Rabbi1, Peter Kulakow1
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important staple crop consumed by more than 500 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of high-yielding cassava varieties with enhanced levels of provitamin A would help combat the problems of hunger and malnutrition associated with vitamin A deficiency. This study evaluated 12 biofortified cassava genotypes in a nationally coordinated release program (NCRP) trial in the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 cropping seasons for carotenoids, yield, and food quality traits. Nine genotypes and three checks were assessed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications across seven locations. Reactions to diseases and pests were monitored at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after planting while data were recorded for harvest traits which included total carotenoids content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC), fresh root yield (FYLD), dry root yield (DYLD), and starch content at 12 months after planting. Analysis of the data was carried out using R. Results from the first year showed that IKN130010, IBA154810, IBA164773, and IBA164800 were outstanding across all locations. These genotypes had average TCC ranging from 13.55µg/g fr.wt to 15.58µg/g, DMC from 26.97% to 31.71% while FYLD varied between 20.92t/ha and 27.52t/ha. Best linear unbiased estimates of five locations from the second year of the study revealed that IBA164800 outperformed other varieties with DYLD of 13.81t/ha, FYLD of 29.41t/ha, and TCC of 13.41µg/g fr. wt. IKN130010, IBA164773, IBA154810, IBA164785 along with the checks IBA011797 and IBA141092 were also among the best performing genotypes. Of the seven locations, Ikenne had the highest fresh root yield across varieties in both years of the study. This information would guide further stability analysis for varietal release decisions.
Keywords: Total Carotenoid Content, Fresh Root Yield, Dry Root Yield, and Dry Matter Content
Quality Champions: Key to improve the quality management in Nextgen Cassava project
Prasad Peteti1, Afolabi Agbona1, Elizabeth Parkes1, Ismail Rabbi1, Olufemi Aina1, Lukas A. Mueller2, Chiedozie Egesi1, Peter Kulakow1 , Marnin Wolfe3 , Kasele salum4 , Peter T. Hyde5, Michael Kanaabi6, Uba Ezenwanyi7 , Luciano Rogério8
1 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria;
2 Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research Ithaca, New York, U.S.A International;
3 Plant Breeding and Genetics Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
4 TARI, Ukiriguru, Tanzania
5 Section of Soil and Crop Sciences, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States,
6 National Crops Resources Research Institute, P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
7Biotechnology Programme, National Root Crops Research Institute, NRCRI, Umudike, Nigeria,
8 Embrapa Mandioca E Fruticulture, Cruz de Almas, BA, Brazil
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of dietary calories for more than 500 million people worldwide and is fundamental for food security in Africa. Nextgen cassava project aims to significantly increase the rate of genetic improvement in cassava breeding and unlock the full potential of cassava. Nextgen Cassava project Phase I (2012-2018) worked successfully to shorten breeding cycles and In NextGen Phase II, more emphasis was laid to obtain higher quality data and to ensure quality control at all process steps. A task force called Quality Champions (Q Champs) was set up to monitor and work across all the programs. The Q Champs group brings together a good diversity of people represented from different disciplines like research, flowering, database development, genomics, and breeding. They are the “go-to” people for quality control (QC) and BREEDBASE-related topics. Their major roles are to create awareness and access to best practices / state-of-the-art techniques in quality management; develop and implement standard operating procedures (SOPs); make use of key performance indicators (KPIs) and quality metrics to ensure the correctness of data and other practices involved in breeding; efficiently manage breeding data collection, curation, and storage; effect an increase in the usage of Cassavabase in daily breeding activities; and to Train users on QC and data management, including a dedicated community of practice partnership (COPP) consisting of several partner countries such as Rwanda, DR Congo, Kenya, Cote d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique. The Quality Champions are also actively involved in promoting digitization of practices, promoting the use of electronic data capturing, procuring digital inputs like barcode labels for both phenotype and genotype stocks to improve data quality, among others. Their active involvement has made a huge impact on quality management and has greatly improved the trust and validity of data generated.
Assessment of the Supply and Demand Gaps in the Cassava Seed System: A Case Study of Cassava VSEs in South-East and South-South, Nigeria
Anyaegbunam, H. N., Ewuziem, J.E., Okonkwo, I.I., Nwokocha, I.N., Onyemauwa, N.C., Nwekpe, J.O., Asumugha, G. N. and Onyeka, T.J.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, PMB 7006 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
This study was conducted mainly to assess the supply and demand gaps in the cassava seed system with reference to National Root Crops Research Institute’s (NRCRI) Village Seed Entrepreneurs (VSEs). Specifically, the study sought to identify sources of foundation seeds, estimate- level of commercialization, income and to identify constraints faced by the VSEs. Data were collected using structured questionnaire administered to 46 VSEs selected purposively. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, supply-demand model, household commercialization Index (HC) and gross margin. The results revealed that there was a demand gap in the cassava system. VSEs sourced their stems from NRCRI and the HCL indicated that majority of the VSEs sold 25% of total crops produced. Gross margin analysis showed that cassava seed and root enterprise was profitable by returning ₦12.58 for every ₦1.00 invested. Major constraints identified were cattle menace and inadequate finance. Policies that will assist in controlling the straying of cattle should be put in place and farmers encouraged forming hedges around their farms to ward off these cattle. Soft loans to the farmers and market promotions will increase production, stimulate demand, encourage commercialization and ensure sustainability of the cassava seed system.
Keywords: Cassava, VSEs, Commercialization, Demand, Supply
Evaluation of Adoption Rate of Sweetpotato Seed Production Technology by Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
Eluagu, Chinwendu J. and Okoye, Amala C.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study analyzed the evaluation of adoption rate of sweetpotato seed production technologies among farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. The study used multistage purposive sampling technique to collect data from 60 sweetpotato seed multipliers with the use of structured questionnaire. The study employed descriptive statistics, ordinary least square regression and likert scale rating analyses. The results showed that many of the farmers were still young, mainly female, married and had at least secondary school education. The results on the level of adoption of seed production technologies showed that planting spacing, time of harvesting, planting on beds, time of fertilization, and use of pesticides were always adopted by the farmers. The OLS regression result also showed that coefficients for age and sweetpotato seed farm size were positive, while coefficients for sex, marital status, and occupation were negative and significantly related with adoption rate of sweetpotato seed production technologies in the study area. The respondents indicated increased income, food nutrition, and acquired new properties, increase in farm size, and training of their children as impact of seed technologies adoption on their welfare. The study therefore calls for policy recommendation towards creating enabling environment to encourage young farmers especially the females and land reform policy for more access to land andincrease farmers’ participation.
Keywords: Seed, Sweetpotao, Income, Welfare and OLS
Certified commercial cassava seed production in Nigeria: Challenges and prospects in South-East and South-South Nigeria
Ewuziem, J.E., Asumugha, G.N., Anyaegbunam, H.N.
National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Nigeria Corresponding Authors email: email@example.com
To overcome the problem of low root yield in cassava production, Building a Sustainable and Integrated Cassava Seed System (BASICS) Project developed a formal seed system for cassava in Nigeria where community based cassava farmers who have the capacity are encouraged to undertake certified cassava seed production and selling as a business. Collaborating with agencies such as National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture Ibadan and National Agricultural Seed Council; 50 Village Seed Entrepreneurs (VSEs) were selected based on certain criteria such as adoption of improved cassava varieties and adherence to certified cassava seed regulations to undertake the business of certified improved cassava seed production and marketing. With an initial total farm size of 34 hectares in 2017, the VSEs in four States of Abia, Imo (Southeast), Akwa Ibom and Cross River (South South) increased their farm sizes to 108.5 hectares in 2018 and 115.95 in 2019. A total of 27,000 bundles of improved cassava seed were produced in 2018, while 36,727 bundles were produced in 2019. Certified improved cassava seed is currently gaining prominence in the study area with increased income to the farmers. Challenges to improved cassava seed production include: Cattle menace, high transportation cost for foundation seed, seed demand gap and low commercialization index.
Keywords: Cassava, seed, improved, system, production
An Economically Sustainable Seed System for Cassava is Possible – Learning’s From Nigeria
Hemant Nitturkar, Graham Thiele and Michael Friedmann
BASICS project, CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas, International Potato Center, Lima, Peru
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava is key to food, livelihood and nutrition security for millions of people in Africa. The world’s largest cassava producer Nigeria is bedeviled with a low productivity of around 10 tons per hectare. Low adoption of certified seeds of improved varieties is one of the key reasons for this even though 46 improved varieties were released in Nigeria over the years. Lack of a sustainable seed system has held back use of improved seeds by farmers until Building an economically sustainable, integrated seed system for cassava (BASICS), a BMGF funded project (2016-2020) demonstrated a way forward. CGIAR-RTB implemented the project in partnership with IITA, NRCRI, NASC and private sector partners. BASICS systematically addressed the technological, structural and human capacity related bottlenecks across the seed value chain and demolished the long-held belief that cassava stem is not a tradable commodity. An innovative rapid multiplication technology, enabling quality certification protocols, a purpose-built seed diagnostic lab at NASC and first-ever IITA and NRCRI owned private companies are all together designed to ensure sustainable supply of breeder and foundation seeds of market responsive varieties. Over 400 distributed commercial seed entrepreneurs were developed to multiply quality certified seeds to sell to the farmers. The seed entrepreneurs have made profits and hence want to expand their business. The farmers have reported economic benefits from buying good quality seed of improved varieties. This experience has proven that sustainable seed systems for cassava is possible and the building blocks developed during BASICS need to be further strengthened.
Keywords: Umudike Seeds, BASICS, EGS, Breeder Seed, Foundation Seed, SAH
Assessment of a Formal Seed Yam System: Value Chain Approach
Kalu, C.A. and Obidiegwu, J. E.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, P.M.B 7006 Umuahia Abia State Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The development of a formal yam seed system is a panacea to improving yam yield in Nigeria, which has remained undeveloped due to several factors including farmers not being sure on what to gain from purchasing improved seeds, lack of communication and information flow between the breeder, processors and consumers. Hence, this study assessed the formal seed yam system using value chain approach. Through consumer intercept and key informant interviews, data were collected from respondents identified along the chain and analysed using value chain approach. From the study it was identified that disease resistance and early sprouting of seed yam were among the consumer preferred traits. The result further identified area of strength to include high ratio of propagation of seed yam produced in the formal system and production of high seed quality. Areas were the system was weak were on poor market infrastructure, use of improve seed among others. The study shows that opportunities exist along the formal seed yam value chain. It is therefore recommended that all the actors along the chain have the potential to grow the size of their profit if they focus on consumer preferred attributes.
Keywords: Seed yam, value chain, formal system
Determinants of the Operational Efficiency of Early Generation Seeds (EGS) Companies: Umudike Seeds Experience
1Mark Tokula, 1Chiedozie Egesi, 1 Godwin Asumugha, 1Adeyemi Olojede, 1Joseph Onyeka, 2David Obisesan, and 2Hemant Nitturkar
1National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, P.M.B 7006. Umuahia, Abia State 2 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan
Corresponding author email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Umudike Seeds Company Limited was established in November 2018, as a pioneer Early Generation Seeds (EGS) company by the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike as a Spin-off, and part of the sustainability strategy for the development of the formal seed system through the BMGF funded Building an Economically Sustainable Integrated Cassava Seed System (BASICS) project to produce and sell high quality Breeder and Foundation Seeds in Nigeria. Analysis of the Cassava Seed System revealed that a well-developed business plan showing details of organizational structure, operational strategies, capacity building, quality assurance, production forecasting, customer engagement and profitability are key determinants of operational efficiency. The core activities of Umudike Seeds are centred on EGS production and advisory services. The Scaling Strategy includes; Decentralized Breeder & Foundation seeds production, Demo plots establishment, farmer field days, using the Social Media, Radio and Television, Video Viewing Sessions, workshops, and Seed Fairs for customer engagement. Target Customers includes; Government MDAs, Village Seed Entrepreneurs (VSEs), Non- Governmental Organizations, Medium-Large Scale Processors, Seed Companies, Academic Institutions, Donor Funded Agricultural Projects and Multinational Companies. The company has produced a well-developed business plan. Quality assurance is guaranteed by leveraging on the partnership with organizations especially IITA and National Seed Council (NASC) using the available Semi Autotrophic Hydroponics (SAH) Technology for rapid multiplication. Initial production is spread across Seven States; Abia, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Benue, Cross-River, Nasarawa and Imo. The identified scaling challenges include; unstable market Price for cassava, weak extension system, demand creation and enabling environment for VSEs.
Keywords: Umudike Seeds, BASICS, EGS, Breeder Seed, Foundation Seed, SAH
Cassava Seedpreneurship: Assessing varietal adoption, profitability and women empowerment in Nigeria
Hemant Nitturkar1, Olawale Olayide2, David Obisesan1*, Adedamola Adesida2, Bridget Alegiunu2, and Omobolaji Obisesan3
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria 3Interconnections for Making Africa Great, Empowered and Sustainable (IMAGES) Initiative *email address: email@example.com
At an average of 60 bundles of cassava stems per hectare, almost 300 million bundles of cassava stems are being sourced for planting for estimated 5 million hectares being planted every year in Nigeria. Cassava seedpreneurship, as an emerging concept focuses on establishing a sustainable seed system. Nevertheless, the dearth of empirical studies on seedpreneurship and its influence on the adoption of new and improved cassava varieties, profitability of the Village Seed Entrepreneurs (VSEs), and women empowerment necessitated this study. This study was carried out in Nigeria using a multi-stage sampling method. The study covers Oyo, Benue, Abia and Akwa-Ibom States, where VSEs and out-grower farming activities are carried out. Total respondents of 901 (545 VSEs, 356 Non-VSEs) were sampled. Structured questionnaires and focused group discussions were conducted. The data gathered were analysed using descriptive analysis, chi-square, Gini-coefficient, and probit regression. Factors that influence the adoption of improved stems among farmers are field demonstration, source of stem, and nearness to agro input dealer. The profitability analysis revealed that VSEs had $406/ha, while it is $318/ha for Non-VSEs.
This study highlights the concept of seedprenuership in driving varietal adoption, increased profitability, and promotion of women empowerment along the cassava seed system in Nigeria. Cassava seedprenuers, prospective seed project interventions and policy makers should uptake the findings from this study as planning tool towards a sustainable
Keywords: Seedprenuership, cassava, adoption, profitability, empowerment, Nigeria
The women VSEs experienced 62.3% increase in the gross income in sales per
month over the non-VSEs.
Profitability of Seed Yam (Discorea spp.) Production using the Minisett Technique in Anambra State, Nigeria
Nwalieji, Hyacinth Udeanya
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam campus, Anambra State, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study estimated profitability of seed yam (Dioscorea spp.) production using the minisett technique in Anambra State. Specifically, it examined adoption of seed yam production practices among the farmers, determined profitability of seed yam production, and identified constraints to seed yam production using minisett technique. The population includes seed yam producers in Anambra State. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 100 respondents. An interview schedule was used for data collection. Percentage, mean score, gross margin and factor analysis were used to analyze the data. The results showed that farmers adopted selection of well drained fertile soil, selection of healthy seed yam that have broken dormancy, intercrop minisett with maize and cowpea using appropriate spacing, staking timely and storage in well ventilated places such as barn. Seed yam production using the minisett technique was a profitable venture in the area. Seed yam production was faced with serious constraints such as high rodent, pest and disease infestation, inadequate fund for start-off, high cost of labour, insufficient land, high cost of seed yam, climate change and poor extension service. It is recommended that cheap farm credit should be granted to yam farmers through the relevant government and non-governmental financial institutions to enhance adoption of the technologies in order to increase the farmers’ productivity and income.
Keywords: Profitability, seed yam production, minisett technique
Commercialization of cassava seeds and determinants of participation in South-East and South-South agro-ecological zones, Nigeria
1Onyegbulam, L. A., 2Asumugha, G. N., 2Egesi, C. N., 2Onyeka, J. and 2Madu, T.
1Department of Agribusiness and Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria
2National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria
Recent advances in biotechnology have enabled an increased efficiency in seed multiplication particularly for root and tuber crops. Technologies such as aeroponics and semi-autotrophic hydroponics has facilitated rapid multiplication of the high quality traits to meet farmers demand for improved varieties that guarantees increased productivity under harsh climatic conditions. Commercial cassava seed system envisaged coordinated value chain from research-to-seed entrepreneurs, and seed entrepreneurs-to-farmers (commercial and subsistence farmers). This informed the launch of the project- Building a Commercially Viable and Sustainable Cassava Seed system (BASICS) to maintain varietal purity, traceability, certified improved commercial cassava seed system in Nigeria. This study analyzed the level of commercialization of improved cassava seed, determinants of commercialization and VSEs participation in seed commercialization and the share of net income from cassava seed commercialization. The study adopted a purposive sampling technique to select the participating Village Seed Entrepreneurs in four (4) States in the south- south and south-east Nigeria, including the foundation seed producers. Findings from the study reveals a mean commercialization index of 0.41, seed commercialization contributed 50.91% of total farm profit, while the parameter estimates of the probit regression on the determinants of cassava seed commercialization reveals that instrumental variables such as age, choice clone, farm size, farm business training, yield per hectare and networks were significant at different levels of probabilities (1%, 5% and 10%) and had direct relationship with commercialization except age. Tobit regression analysis on participation further highlighted influencing factors at various levels of probabilities. The study recommends that agricultural extension and rural advisory services should support the promotion of elite varieties, while the government should enable the business environment for the commercial seed system to thrive.
Keywords: Commercialization, Profitability, Cassava Seed System, Tobit and Probit regression
Investigating cassava farmers’ seed preferences for replacement adoption inclination in Nigeria
Owoade Durodola,1,2, Ogunade Adedayo1, Bela Teeken1, Rabbi Ismail1, Olajide Razak2 and Kulakow Peter1
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) 2University of Ibadan, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Cassava is a clonally propagated crop comprised of stem pieces saved from current harvest crop or seed produced through informal or formal seed exchange. Seed enterprises produce cassava stems from existing local seed varieties or improved seed varieties for economically sustained profit. Farmers produce cassava seeds mostly through the informal seed system and the prioritized traits influenced their perceptions on seed choice and willingness to pay for seed. A structured questionnaire was used to probe one hundred and ninety six individual farmers using both primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, and inferential statistical tools like Chi-square, PPMC and ANOVA. Majority of farmers (88.3%) prefer seed varieties with constant bright white color yield, processing quality and final product qualities. About 53.1% of the farmers had favorable perception towards seed initiatives. Among the constraints influencing farmers’ seed preferences were lack of access to agricultural loans (89.3%), lack of access to and use of new cassava seeds (56.6%) and lack of money to expand farmland (29.1%). Therefore, government policies should be reviewed to support farmers on agricultural production subsidies, ensure proper training in agronomic practices and seed business skills.
Keywords: Cassava, seed systems, seed enterprises, willingness to buy seed
Seed system for the promotion of orange fleshed sweetpotato varieties in Malawi
John Kazembe1, Tionge Chadzala1, Stanley Mbewe1, Gloria Chitedze2, Miswell Chitete2, Willard Mbewe2, Margret Chiipanthenga2, Denis Kathabwalika1, Chifundo Kapalamula1 and Felistus Chipungu1
1International Potato Centre, PO BOX 30136, Lilongwe, Malawi
2 Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station, PO BOX 5748, Limbe, Malawi Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato (OFSP) seed multiplication and root production in Malawi is being promoted and supported by the International Potato Center (CIP) and partners through a 5-year (2016-2021) project funded by Irish Aid, entitled ‘Root and Tuber Crops for Agriculture Transformation in Malawi (RTC-ACTION Malawi). The goal is to increase Root and Tuber Crops (RTCs) contributions to food security, nutrition and incomes in Malawi. Specifically, these RTCs are Potato, OFSP and cassava. The project has established a sweetpotato seed system where in partnership with the Department of Agricultural Research Services (DARS), pre-basic seed material is produced from tissue culture and screen houses. Individual farmers and farmer groups are then engaged for on-ward and decentralized multiplication in communities where basic and certified vines are produced. Decentralized multiplication ensures access and sustainable supply of quality seed. Over the 5 years 9,575 in-vitro plantlets were produced for screen houses where 182,300 vine slips (30cm long) were produced for further open field vine production. Capable multipliers in terms of having a reliable source of water and protection from livestock were using rapid multiplication techniques of the screen house material before dissemination to other farmers who participated in the multiplication of certified seed. The project also conducted various promotional approaches to create demand. Vine multipliers were linked to various markets where more than 388,421 vine bundles (1 bundle=100 vine cuttings of 30cm long) were produced and sold in the five years. OFSP dissemination relates to promote increased consumption in order to contribute to reduction of vitamin A deficiency especially among children less than five years. Nine improved OFSP varieties developed by DARS in 2011 and 2018 are under promotion.
Keywords: Seed system, early generation, access, quality seed
Potato Seed Dissemination and Demonstration: A Vehicle to Improving Yield in Selected Districts of Malawi
Pearson Phiri, Denis Kathabwalika, Obed Mwenye, Felistus Chipungu, Tionge Chadzala, and Thokozani Mvula
International Potato Centre, PO BOX 30136, Lilongwe, Malawi
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The International Potato Center (CIP), with funding from Irish Aid, has been leading the implementation of a 5-year project (2016-2021) titled the ‘Root and Tuber Crops for Agricultural Transformation in Malawi’. The overall outcome is being achieved through the provision of support to small holder farmers in terms of access to more resilient and nutritious varieties of root and tuber crops; specifically potato, sweetpotato and cassava; provision of technical assistance to increase productivity; access to new and high-value markets (through commercial processors) and promote consumption. Through a potato seed system, the project has disseminated quality seed of improved and disease resistant varieties to 14122 farm households from Central (Dowa, Ntchisi and Kasungu) and Northern (Mzimba South) Regions of the country. Beneficiaries underwent a series of agronomic trainings through demonstration plots and were provided with improved seed to plant on their own. In each year, at least 10 demonstration plots were established per district. These acted as learning sites for improved production technologies. Harvest data from demonstration plots showed high yields year by year with a five-year average yield of 37t/ha. The demand for improved varieties is on the increase due to the high yields which in part is attributed to resistance to late blight disease; a big problem in Malawi. In response, the project trained a total of 25 seed multipliers in intervention districts to ensure access to quality seed of improved varieties within communities. The work in districts is in collaboration with the district Agriculture offices. In terms of capacity building and for sustainability within communities, CIP has also trained 58 agriculture field staff on improved potato technologies to better service the farmers.
Key words: Seed dissemination, quality seed, beneficiary, high yields
Landscape analysis of agriculture digital platform and lessons learned for strengthening root, tubers and banana seed system in sub-Saharan Africa
Srinivasulu Rajendran1, Oscar Ingasia Ayuya2, Steve Adongo3, Luka Wanjohi4 and
1International Potato Center (CIP), Kampala, Uganda
3International Potato Center (CIP), Kenya
Corresponding Author’s email: Srini.firstname.lastname@example.org
Most agriculture applications in sub-Saharan Africa focus on improving agriculture supply chain integration and have a wide range of functions, such as; providing market information, increasing access to extension services, and facilitating market links. Most of the digital tools focus on crop specific or all types of crops depending on types of services and demand from users. The biggest challenge in this sector; the adoption of digital platforms in agriculture sector is low and it is fully dependent on donors’ fund. However, there are few digital companies that operate their services self-funded. In addition, limited number of digital platforms that focuses on vegetatively propagated crops. Therefore, this study has carried landscape analysis of existing digital platforms and understands functions and revenue models. Further to understand challenges faced by digital companies in agriculture particularly for strengthening seed system. Finally, the study identified lessons and potential options for strengthening root, tubers and banana seed system in SSA using digital platform. The study identified that there is a huge scope for utilizing digital tools for strengthening seed systems of root, tubers and banana crops. However, it was realized that there are some services; the tools require a financial support. However, some services like providing access to credit and extension services and linking farmers with markets can have self-funded options. Finally, the study identified many digital companies are at nascent stage in agriculture sector, and strong in computer skills, but they require more support on technical skills towards agriculture sector particularly on vegetatively propagated crops and its seed system.
Building scalable, sustainable sweetpotato seed distribution channel and potential business models for sweetpotato seed entrepreneurs in Uganda and Tanzania
Srinivasulu Rajendran1, Sam Namanda1, Bonny Oloka3, Stella Namazzi3, Kwame Ogero4, Ibrahim Ochenje5, Luka Wanjohi6, January Mafuru7, Hadija Mussa8, Saadan Edson4 and Margaret McEwan6
1International Potato Center (CIP), Kampala, Uganda
2International Potato Center (CIP), Kampala, Uganda
3National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Uganda
3National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Uganda
4International Potato Center (CIP), Tanzania
5International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Kenya
6International Potato Center (CIP), Kenya
7Individual consultant, Tanzania
8Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), Ukiriguru
4International Potato Center (CIP), Tanzania
6International Potato Center (CIP), Kenya
Corresponding Author’s email: Srini.email@example.com
In sub-Saharan Africa, National Agriculture Research Organizations (NARO) are own monopoly status in producing sweetpotato Early Generation Seeds (EGS) and less involvement of private sector role due to nature of the crop. However, there are some private companies showing interest in investing in EGS production with support from donors. NAROs were trying to generate revolving fund to sustain their production and ensure consistent supply of quality planting materials and improved varieties to farmers, but limited number of farmers has access to these materials due to inefficient seed distribution channel. Therefore, the study maps out existing seed distribution channels and business model(s) led by EGS and sweetpotato vine multipliers in one of the major sweetpotato producing countries, namely; Uganda and Tanzania. Further, build a scalable, sustainable, and efficient seed distribution channel and identify potential business model(s) for seed entrepreneurs who would like to venture in sweetpotato seed business. The study found that currently the major customer segments for NAROs are NGOs whose focus on nutritional-rich sweetpotato variety to disseminate this variety to their direct beneficiaries under health-related projects. So, there is a clear distribution channel for nutritionally rich variety, but for the market preferred varieties which are largely local landraces; there is a disconnection between EGS producers (formal) and sweetpotato producers (informal). The study has designed a structure for the efficient seed distribution model using business tools and identified potential business model(s) using business model canvas approach for sweetpotato producers to venture into seed business at a medium scale.
Eliciting farmers’ demand for quality and nutritionally enhanced sweetpotato planting material in Rwanda
Srinivasulu Rajendran1, Julius Okello1, Patrick Ward2, Fleur Kilwinger3, Mywish Maredia4, Sindi Kirimi5, Jean Claude Nshimiyimana6, Jean ndirigwe7, Seraphine Uzamushaka6, Marcel Gatto8, Denis Munyabarame9, Damien Shumbusha9, Guy Hareau10, and David Spielman11
1International Potato Center (CIP), Kampala, Uganda
1International Potato Center (CIP), Kampala, Uganda
2Duke Kunshan University, China
3Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands
4Michigan State University, USA
5Technologies for African Agricultural Transformation (TAAT), Kenya
6International Potato Center (CIP), Rwanda
7Rwanda Agriculture and Animal Resources Development Board (RAB), Rwanda
6International Potato Center (CIP), Rwanda
8International Potato Center (CIP), Vietnam
9Rwanda Agriculture and Animal Resources Development Board (RAB), Rwanda
9Rwanda Agriculture and Animal Resources Development Board (RAB), Rwanda
10International Potato Center (CIP), Peru
11International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Rwanda
Corresponding Author’s email: Srini.firstname.lastname@example.org
To strengthen sweetpotato seed system and improving nutritional status under-five year old children, several new improved biofortified varieties of sweetpotato have been introduced in Rwanda since 2014 through partnership between the International Potato Center (CIP) and Rwanda Agricultural and Livestock Board (RAB). Through this collaboration, a strong sweetpotato seed system established provides access to quality sweetpotato planting material for farmers. Several promotional activities were carried out to promote the cultivation and consumption of orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). Though majority of farmers obtain their sweetpotato planting material from own sources or neighboring farmers; market for quality vines has started emerging. Therefore, the study measures demand for quality planting materials and also nutritionally rich sweetpotato variety. The study was collected among 697 farm household from 37 villages located across four regions of Rwanda. The 2nd price auction was used to estimate farmers’ willingness to pay for sweetpotato quality planting materials and high beta carotene nutritious biofortified sweetpotato variety. The results show that farmers are willing to pay premium price (30% more than existing market price) for planting materials when they realized that planting materials are produced by trained vine multipliers and quality is assured. Similar trend was observed when farmers observed the performance of the variety visually. Further, the results show farmers are willing to pay premium price (55% more than existing market price) for nutritionally rich sweetpotato variety compared to the variety that does not carry nutritional value.
Assessment of impact and performance of Cassava seed distribution under Root and Tuber Crops for Agricultural Transformation in Malawi
Makiyi, V1., Ntawuruhunga, P2., Manduwa, D1. and Pankomera, P3.
1International Institute of Tropial Agricutue (IITA), Chitedze Research Station, Lilongwe, Malawi
2International Instutute of Tripical Agricultute (IITA), Kabangwe Research Station, Lusaka, Zambia
3Department of Agricuture Research Services (DARS), Chitedze Research station, Lilongwe, Malawi
Correspnidng Author’s email: V.Makiyi@cgiar.org
The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), in partnership with the Department of Agricultural Research (DARS), through the Root and Tuber Crops for Agricultural Transformation in Malawi (RTC – Action Malawi) Project, promoted the adoption of new and improved cassava varieties through distribution among smallholder farmers. The initiative distributed close to 88,000 bundles of cassava planting materials and reached over 36,000 households in five project districts. In view of this, a post-seed distribution rapid appraisal was conducted to assess the impact and performance of the initiative for the last three agricultural seasons. The study involved applied quantitative and qualitative methods; including household interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), secondary data review, and observations. The study results showed that 83% of the farmers have had multiple benefits from the intervention, including improved household income through planting material sales and food security. The study further showed that 73% of the beneficiaries expanded seed cultivation acreage at an average of 0.5 to 2 acres per season. Additionally, 75% of farmer beneficiaries s shared with friends and relatives after the first or second harvest. Results further show that 65% of the seed multipliers have had cassava seed sales at least once in the last three seasons at an average of MWK 1200 ($1.45) per bundle, which is 30% higher than the current market price. On average, a seed multiplier sold at least 700 bundles and realised over 800,000 kwacha ($969.7) each season. The study also showed that the project has been the primary market, off-taking over 75% of the produced planting materials each season, while other NGOs, neighbours, and friends contribute 25%. In view of this, it was demonstrated that farmers are unable to access sustainable markets for seeds beyond the project due to inadequate market exposure activities and non-proper functional seed certification status. This quick appraisal led to the recommendation to expedite seeds certification process implementation, enhance market assessment and enterprise development activities to catalyse long-term business partnerships and sustainability along the value chain.
Keywords: Planting Material, Seed multipliers, seeds certification, seed Markets
BUILDING AN EFFICIENT CASSAVA FOUNDATION SEED PRODUCERS (FSP) NETWORK FOR PROFITABLE EARLY GENERATION SEEDS BUSINESS AT NATIONAL ROOT CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE UMUDIKE
(TRAINING AND MENTORSHIP APPROACH)
Mark Tokula1, GodwinAsumugha1, Joseph Onyeka1,Chiedozie Egesi1 and Sanni Lateef2
1National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, P.M.B 7006. Umuahia, AbiaState.
2 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan.
Corresponding author email: email@example.com
Cassava Foundation Seeds Producers were selected, trained and on-boarded on the platform of BASICS II Project in 2020 to bridge the gap between Early Generation Seeds companies and Commercial Seeds Entrepreneurs for profitable cassava seeds business in Nigeria. In 2020 NRCRI selected 14 individuals (8 Males and 6 Females), and 7 Groups, 3 seed companies 1 NGO(Vonherra foundation) and 1 Faith based organization (Kolping Society) and 2 Cassava seed clusters from Abia, Akwa Ibom, Imo, Ebonyi, Cross river, Rivers, Benue, and kogi states of Nigeria. They were trained for three days and connected with National Agricultural Seeds Council (NASC) for certification. After the Onboarding, they commenced foundation seeds production and immediately formed a cooperative association for carrying out their seed business. Results from the mentorship and inspection visits showed that 12 out of the 14 FSPs Produced foundation seeds in 2020-2021 between 5 to 35 hectares each and sold between 1000 – 5000 bundles respectively. Two of the FSPs have also established their processing factories and have started their outgrower schemes as scale out and sustainability strategies. Constraints identified include high cost and unreliability of delivery logistics, mechanization and difficulty in meeting huge demands from big time cassava producers within and outside BASICS II.
Key words: Cassava, Foundation seed, Onboarding, Seeds certification.
ONBOARDING AND MENTORING OF CASSAVA SEED ENTREPRENEURS (CSEs) BY NRCRI AS VEHCLE FOR QUALITY SEED DISSEMINATION IN NIGERIA
Asumugha, G.N., Ewuziem, J.E., Anyaegbunam, H.N., Tokula, M.H., Okoye, B.C., Amaefula, A., Nwokocha, Ivy
National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Nigeria
Improving access to quality cassava seeds requires an integrated seed system, where certified cassava seed are available and accessible from formal seed producers (Research Institutes, Foundation seed producers and Seed entrepreneurs) to end users (Cassava farmers). The rate of adoption and use of improved cassava varieties is still very low due mainly to lack of credible seed entrepreneurs who are willing to undertake certified cassava seed production and selling as a means of livelihood in the rural communities. National Root Crops Research Institute in partnership with BASICS project and IITA selected and onboarded 60 CSEs from 3 States (Abia, Akwa Ibom and Imo) in 2020. Further the institute in partnership with IFAD onboarded additional 120 CSEs from 9 states (Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, Kogi, Nasarawa, Niger, Benue, Taraba and Ogun). A total of 180 cassava seed entrepreneurs have been onboarded in the CSE network in 2020 and 2021 to champion the production and selling of certified commercial cassava seed and serve as channel for sensitization, popularization and distribution of certified seed of choice cassava varieties in the rural communities. Among the onboarded CSEs, 62.7% were males while 37.3% were females. The CSEs have an average farm size of 1.8ha of cassava farm and most prefer TME 419 over other varieties. Among the mentoring strategies adopted by NRCRI Umudike to backstop the CSEs include: Establishment of demonstration plots at strategic locations in each zone of the states, market day promotions, market linkages and of cource access to the National Seed Council of Nigeria for certification of seeds, WhatsApp group chats, formation of CSEs into registered cooperative societies, attendance to their meetings and quarterly field visits and quarterly virtual meetings and lectures.
Keywords: Cassava, Seed entrepreneurs, farmers, certified improved varieties
Interrogating exigencies and opportunities for sweet potato market linkages in Masvingo – Zimbabwe
Gwanda State University, Insiza, Zimbabwe Corresponding Authors’ email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Sweet potato (ipomea batatas) is a starchy, carbohydrate packed tuber that grows well in most arid regions of Zimbabwe. Farmers are facing challenges in marketing their sweet potato produce in formal markets. Lack of inclusive policies that regulate and enforce production, marketing and linking farmers to markets is one huge set back, they lament. The study was carried out with structured questionnaires (both open and closed ended questions) targeting policy implementers, small holder farmers, Non Governmental Organisations that help with funding and promotion of sweet potato production and adoption of new varieties. Data was compiled into pie-charts, bar graphs and tables and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS).Descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. Most farmers (90%) expressed concern on no policies that regulate sweet potato production and marketing, although, the Marketing body includes it under horticultural produce, with more attention given to maize, wheat and tobacco. NGO’s face challenges in that it, is still regarded as the poor man’s crop, compromising the attention that it gets from both farmers and the government. From the sweet potato produced, 80% is sold in informal markets at prices that are often negotiated between sellers and buyers. The study hence recommends strong consultations among stakeholders in the sweet potato value chain, promotion of viable markets and vigorous outreaches by responsible authorities for adoption of new varieties and technologies.
Keywords: Policies, smallholder, market linkages, viability, sweet potato
Monkey Orange Crafts effort to revamp yam cultivation in Zambia
Plot 07/48 great north road, Lusaka province of Zambia
Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.com
Contribution to crop diversification; the organization is championing cultivation of five (5) indigenous yam species, namely: Dioscorea bulbifera (aerial yam), finger yam (winged), Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam), wild yam (impama) and Dioscorea alata (water yam) among smallholder farmers in Zambia. Yam is an important source of income and high nutrition value to the community. Farmers are mobilized in three (3) ecological zones, through different fora such as national exhibitions, media and field days since inception of the project in 2016/2017 farming season, over 4,000 farmers have been registered across the country. The project is persuading Zambians to reduce dependence on maize and mono diet. Yam is called an Orphan crop in Zambia, currently; there is dearth of information on yam production. Monkey Orange Yam Farming in Zambia project self-sponsored and trained 1,070 farmers in yam cultivation, in the 2020/2021 farming season. About 172 smallholder farmers planted 7.2 hectare of land with two identified varieties; winged and water yam in all the provinces, with expected yield of 438,737 tons with over 400 plants planted by each farmer. Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has been signed with the Ministry of Agriculture. Stakeholders, Ministry of Agriculture and Zambia Agricultural and Commercial Show Society have offered us land for yam seed production, and awareness activities. The Organization is a member of Zambia Development Agency (ZDA). We have applied to SCCI for the process to release yam varieties. IITA Southern Africa region through collaboration efforts have linked us to team leader in Ibadan IITA for the support in new yam germplasm materials and value addition. Challenges include lack quality of good seed varieties, modern facilities for processing, skills in marketing, pest and diseases, yam seed multiplication, funds to run the project. Way forward will include research, stakeholder’s partnership, awareness, introduction of better type of varieties, and logistics to run the project is critical.
Identifying check clones for the current sweetpotato product profile in Uganda based on GxE interaction in multi-environment trials
Jolien Swanckaert1, Benard Yada2, Bonny Oloka2, Doreen Chelangat2, Reuben Ssali3, Robert O.M. Mwanga1, Maria Andrade4, Bert De Boeck5, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg5, Hugo Campos5
1International Potato Center (CIP), Kampala, Uganda
2National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), Namulonge, Uganda
3International Potato Center (CIP), Kumasi, Ghana
4International Potato Center (CIP), Maputo, Mozambique
5International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The current sweetpotato product profile in Uganda was based on market knowledge and developed by a cross-functional team of stakeholders to guide breeding efforts. Using the leading variety in Uganda, “NASPOT 8”, three basic or must-have traits and three value-added traits based were prioritized. NASPOT 8 is well accepted for its taste, vine vigour and sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD) resistance. Note that these traits are preferred by different actors in the sweetpotato value chain: traders, processors, consumers, seed multipliers and farmers. The value-added traits, or the traits that can be improved in NASPOT 8, are beta-carotene content, weevil resistance and root appearance. Yield is always given and therefore not mentioned in the product profile. Implementing a breeding stage gate process using product profiles requires appropriate check clones to benchmark each trait. Traits differ in heritability and sensitivity to environments with different levels of genotype by environment (GxE) interaction. Genotypes with low contribution to the GxE are of interest because of their stable performance in the target population of environments. This study identifies suitable sweetpotato benchmark clones by evaluating 130 sweetpotato improved varieties and landraces in three locations in Uganda during four cropping seasons. The GxE interaction for key traits highlighted in the current product profile (foliage yield, SPVD resistance, weevil resistance, beta-carotene content and root appearance) and sweetpotato storage root yield were calculated using a mixed model that accommodates for heterogeneity of genetic variances across environments. Stability of genotypes varied by traits, resulting in a set of check clones appropriate for all traits.
Keywords: Sweetpotato, product profile, GxE, BLUPs, stability
Suitability Assessment of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato for Sustainable Nutrition Security in Nigeria
Onyiba, P.O., Okoh, T., Mbah, T.N., Achebe, U. and Ajisola, J.K.
National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Great percentage of people in the world today, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, is estimated to be undernourished and underweight. Adults, pregnant women and children are dying on yearly basis as a result of acute micronutrient malnutrition commonly called hidden hunger, which is characterized by chronic deficiency of essential vitamins and micronutrient minerals such as vitamin A, Zinc and Iron. Vitamin A deficiency is a major factor that requires appropriate nutrition interventions. Hence, orange fleshed sweet potato variety, the second most important root tuber and the seventh food crop of the world, is sustainably suitable to curb vitamin A deficiency and malnutrition in children and adults. Sweet potato is an important food and nutrition security root crop with high levels of beta-carotene, a natural precursor to vitamin A; rich in vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and fibre. This paper assessed the nutritional composition, role of orange-fleshed sweet potato variety to end hunger, and all forms of malnutrition, including; achieving the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children less than five years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, and older persons.
Keywords; Orange Fleshed Sweet potato, Vitamin A, Malnutrition, Nutrition Security
Development of Sweetpotato-Rice-Palm Weevil Larvae Porridge for Malnourished Infants
Alex Acquah Junior, Abena Boakye, William O. Ellis and Ibok Oduro
Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana
Presenters’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Roots and tubers play a vital role in the diet and health status of consumers. Orange-flesh sweetpotato (OFSP) is promoted as food supplement against vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. Recent developments in complementary foods from local ingredients are mainly plant based with many being protein/energy deficient. Food use of insects is among efforts to meet protein needs of the malnourished. This study developed a nutrient and energy dense gruel from OFSP, brown rice and palm weevil larvae with moringa and banana used as additives to augment the micronutrient and organoleptic properties. Palm weevil larvae and banana were freeze dried for 72 hours and standard methods used to dry OFSP and moringa. Brown rice was roasted following traditional methods. All samples were milled into flour. Formulations were generated using extreme vertices design based on limits estimated from material balance calculations and preliminary trials. Ash, fat and fibre contents were within the recommended limit for infant gruels; these ranged from 2.7-3.4%, 14-16% and 1.6-2.1% for ash, fat and fibre respectively. The moisture content of the products were low (5-6%), signifying high shelf-stability. The calorific value was high (417-445 kcal/100g) and carotenoid content ranged from 4-6mg/100g. Formulations had appreciable protein and mineral content with potential to contribute to 20.4- 28.5%, 346-356%, 124-231%, 63-130% of recommended daily allowance for Calcium, Magnesium, Iron and Zinc respectively. The gruels also showed less nutrient thinning with 1:3.5 (flour: water) ratio for cooking. The present study provides baseline for exploration for OFSP and palm weevil larvae as key ingredients for culturally acceptable complementary foods in West Africa.
Keywords: Orange-flesh sweetpotato, Complementary food, Gruels, Palm weevil larvae, Brown rice
Effect of Cassava Processing Methods on the Carbohydrate Content of Cassava Flour (Gari)
1Elekeh, Rose Ichita and 2Okoye, Amala Christiana
1Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria 2National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike P.M.B. 7006 Umuahia Abia state, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study analyzed the effect of processing methods on the carbohydrate (Cab) content of the processed cassava flour (gari). Two methods of cassava processing were adopted; improved- prolonged and traditional methods. The improved-prolonged method involves peeling, grinding to slurry, soaking and straining, re-soaking and straining 4 times/day for 5 days and then toasting. The result shows that in 100g of sampled gari, 3.1g/cab was realized against 8.6g/cab in the normal traditional method sampled. The T-test result shows a significant difference in the cab content of the two processing methods. The result thereby, calls for such method in processing gari for diabetics and obese patients who needs low carbohydrate food to maintain low calorie diet for sustainable health.
Keywords: Cassava, gari, low cab, diabetic, T-test
Consumption Patterns, Knowledge and Perception of Yellow Flesh Cassava Roots and Leaves among Ghanaians
Duah E.A1., Parkes E2., Danquah, A.O3., and Steiner-Aseidu, M.1
1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon. P.O. Box LG 134 2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Ibadan 200001, Oyo State, Nigeria 3Department of family and consumer sciences, University of Ghana, Legon Corresponding authors’ email: email@example.com
This study sought to determine effect of processing on the in-vitro bio accessibility of carotenoids in yellow flesh cassava roots and leaves. Processing had an effect on carotenoid bio- accessibility with carotenoids in the roots being more accessible than those in the leaves. Boiled roots contributed between 4 and 21% of the RDA in children less than 5 years and boiled leaves contributed between 2.6 to 386% of the RDA for every 100 grams of food consumed which showed more potential to meeting the RDA. Gari and kokonte however provided less than 1% of the RDA for every 100grams of the cassava and as such a greater amount of the food must be consumed in order to meet a more significant amount of the RDA. Yellow cassava would serve as a promising source of pro-vitamin A and the carotenoids in yellow cassava roots are more bio- accessible than cassava leaves. Processing also has an effect on the bio-accessibility on total carotenoids in yellow cassava.
Keywords: Bio-accessibility, carotenoids, gari, kokonte, cassava
Production and Quality Evaluation of Gari Blended with African Yam Bean and Maize
Emetole, J.M. and Omodamiro, R.M.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Fresh, peeled and grated cassava mash were blended with African yam bean (AYB) seed flour and maize in ratios of 90% cassava + 8% AYB + 2% maize, 80% cassava + 15% AYB + 5% maize, 70% cassava + 20% AYB + 10% maize, 60% cassava + 25% AYB + 15% maize, and 50% cassava + 30% AYB + 20% maize prior to fermentation. Gari without African yam bean seed flour and maize served as the control. Fermentation was done for 2 days after which the samples were de-watered. The de-watered samples were sieved, dried, fried and evaluated for nutrient composition, functional properties and microbiological quality using standard laboratory procedures. The level of African yam bean and maize inclusion had significant (p<0.05) effect on the nutrient composition, functional properties and microbiological quality of the samples. The following range of values were obtained for moisture (9.55 to 12.90%), ash (1.64 to 2.71%), fat (0.53 to 3.55%), crude fiber (0.37 to 1.51%), protein (2.18 to 12.81%) and carbohydrate (70.08 to 82.39%) content of the gari samples. It was observed that increase in the level of inclusion of AYB and maize resulted to increase in the percentage of protein, ash, crude fiber and fat. The anti-nutrient content of the fortified gari samples increased significantly (p<0.05) from 0.02 to 0.58% (phytate), 0.02 to 0.78% (oxalate), 0.01 to 0.04 mg/100g (saponin), 0.02 to 0.68mg/100g (tannin), 0.04 to 0.29g/100g (TIA) and 0.01 to 1.45g/100g HCN. The results also revealed that increasing the level of AYB and maize addition decreased (p<0.05) the total viable counts and total fungal counts of the fortified gari samples during the 3 months period of storage. Addition of AYB and maize improved the nutrient composition and functional properties of gari and the entire samples were within acceptable microbiological quality. Therefore, sensory evaluation of the fortified gari samples is recommended.
Attaining Food security in Nigeria: Exploring potentials of underutilized yam landraces for food and nutrition security
Harbor, Chioma Ikechi
Minor Root Crops Programme, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike Nigeria Corresponding authors’ email: email@example.com
One of the constraints on attainment of food security in Nigeria is the over reliance on very few major staple crops. Many Nigerian yam land races which served as foods several years ago are presently neglected and going extinct. The major challenge is the dearth of knowledge of improved developed agronomic practices, their rich nutritional contents and various value additions made along their value chains. Therefore, the review seeks to bridge the gap between Scientists and producers/consumers by addressing the challenges in some neglected Nigerian land races (Dioscorea alata, Dioscorea cayennensis, Dioscorea esculanta, Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea dumetorum). The developed agronomic practices, and nutritional contents of the land races are highlighted and also the various value additions to the crops identified and discussed along their value chains. This is to re-enact interest in the cultivation and consumption of these crops in order to attain increased food production, crop conservation and food security in Nigeria.
Keywords: Food security, underutilized, yam races
Consumers’ Perception of Pro-Vitamin A Cassava among Rural Households in Anambra State, Nigeria
1Igwe, C.O.K., 2Asumugha G.N., 2Nwokeocha I.N. and Okeke, K.E.
1Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
2National Root Crops Research Institution, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study assessed consumers’ perception of Pro-Vitamin A cassava among rural households in Anambra State, Nigeria. A multi stage sampling procedure was adopted in selecting hundred and twenty (120) respondents for the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as ordinary least square regression analysis. Results on the forms of use of Pro-Vitamin A Cassava showed that 43.3% of the respondents consumed Pro-vit A cassava in form of fufu, 77.5% as Eba and 38.3% as Tapioca. Results on the frequency of consumption of Pro-Vitamin A Cassava showed a grand mean of ( = 4.20), implying high level of frequency in consumption of pro-vitamin A cassava. Consumers of pro-vit A cassava had a positive perception about the cassava variety with a grand mean of ( = 4.0). The regression result showed that household size and availability of pro-vitamin A cassava were highly significant at 1% level and positively related to the frequency of consumption. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected at 0.05 alpha level. In conclusion, consumers have positive perception about pro-vitamin A cassava in Anambra State, Nigeria. Despite the good perception, certain constraints limited the consumption of Pro vitamin A cassava in the study area, and these includes; high cost of the commodity, lack of palatable taste, not readily available and high water content. More extension services should therefore be undertaken to increase consumer’s knowledge and perception of pro vitamin A cassava.
Keywords: Consumers, pro-vitamin A, cassava, knowledge, households
Some Quality Attributes of High Quality cassava Flour enriched with Cashew nut Flour
Kajihausa, O. E., Olssoji, O. S. and Ogunleye, A. A.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P. M. B 2240 Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
High quality cassava flour (HQCF) is gaining popularity and economic potential as a partial substitute for wheat in the production of food products. However, there is need to enhance its nutritional quality to reduce the risk of chronic diseases associated with food malnutrition. Thus, this study evaluated some quality attributes of HQCF-cashew nut flour (CNF) blends. A total of eight (8) experimental runs using simplex lattix response surface design formulated for two components (HQCF and CNF) mixture. The proximate composition, functional properties, colour parameters and anti-nutritional properties of the flour blends were determined using standard laboratory procedures. Data were analysed using Design expert version 6.0.8 based on the simplex lattice design. Models were generated and significance effect of the ingredient combination at 5% level determined. Results showed that the moisture, fat and crude protein contents of the proximate composition were significantly affected by (P<0.05) by interaction effects of HQCF and CNF. The swelling capacity, least gelation and dispersibility were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the inclusion of CNF flour. The colour attributes and the anti- nutritional properties were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by the main or interaction effect of the flour blends. The optimized ingredient combination level was obtained with 73% HQCF and 27% CNF. The protein content and some functional properties of the composited blends from HQCF and CNF were considerably improved.
Keywords: HQCF, Cashew nut flour, Proximate composition, Functional properties
Enhancement of Iron in Orange-fleshed sweetpotato Varieties in Southern Africa
Maria I. Andrade1, Jan Low3, Godwill S. Makunde1, Jose Ricardo2, Abilio Alvaro1, Omowumi Idowu1, Gervancio Covele1, Thomas zum Felde4, Roelinda Jongstra5, Rita Wegmüller5, Martin Mwangi5, Hannele Lindqvist-Krueze4, Wolfgang Gruneberg4and Hugo Campos4
1International Potato Center, Av. FPLM 2698, Maputo, Mozambique
2Instituto de Investigação Agraria de Mozambique, Av. FPLM 2698, Maputo, Mozambique 3International Potato Center, ILRI Campus
4International Potato Center, Av. La Molina 1895, La Molina, Lima Perú 5ETH-Zurich, Department of Science and Technology
Corresponding Authors’ email: M.Andrade@cgiar.org
Objectives of breeding sweetpotato in Southern Africa region are to improve beta-carotene, iron and drought tolerance. Recombinations with more than 120 parents following the reciprocal recurrent method have been carried out in Mozambique since 2011 to develop climate smart and nutritious sweetpotato varieties acceptable and preferred by farmers and consumers in sub- Saharan Africa. About 120, 000 clones from controlled crossings were evaluated in 230 breeding trials in different environments and nutrient qualities assessed via high throughput phenotyping by near infra-red spectrometry [NIRS], x-ray fluorescence [XRF] and inductively coupled plasma [ICP] technologies. Iron levels from the clones generated from the crossing blocks have reached a maximum of 9.16 from an initial average of 1.03mg/100g, DW. In 2017, MUSG1505- 2 was identified to have enough levels of Fe proceeded to Fe bioavailability studies in Zomba district, Malawi. MUSG15052-2 had an average storage root yield of 27.75t/ha, foliage yield (32.06t/ha), DM (23.07%), beta-carotene (35mg/100g, DW [dry weight]), Fe (38mg/kg using x- ray fluorescence and 44mg/kg using inductively coupled plasma [ICP]). The results indicated MUSG15052-2 provided 6.4% and 14.1% of a woman and child’s daily iron needs respectively. Breeding effort needs to continue and hopefully be accelerated as we would like to meet at least 30% of a young child’s need in just 100g of OFSP. Iron-improved OFSP can contribute to an increased iron intake especially for those women with lower iron. Studies to understand interactions of iron, polyphenol and vitamin C need to be carried out.
Keywords: sweetpotato, biofortified, anemia, iron, crossing block
Effect of Different Drying Methods on the Physicochemical Compositions of Two Varieties of Ginger (Yellow and Black)
Nwanagba, N. L., Ukom, A.N. and Onuoha, M. C.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study was aimed to investigate beef patties with blends of soybean and sweet potato. Seven patty samples were formulated from blends of soybean flour, sweet potato paste and meat paste. The patty prepared from 100% beef served as the control. The blends were mixed with equal quantities of onions, pepper, maggi, and salt, fried in vegetable oil till both side became light brown. The proximate and sensory properties of the patty were evaluated using standard analytical procedures to ascertain the more nutritious and generally accepted blend. Data obtained showed that the moisture content of the patties ranged from 26.83% to 35.62%. Sample 101(100% grounded beef, 0%soybean and 0%Sweet potato) had the highest protein content of 32.53%, while Sample 106(50% grounded beef, 20% soybean, 30%Sweet potato) had the least crude protein content of 23.75%. Their crude fiber values ranged from 0.16% to 0.48%, while crude fat contents ranged from 7.31% to 18.47%. Sample 106(50% grounded beef, 20% soybean, 30%Sweet potato) had the highest Carbohydrate content of 31.25%, while Sample 101(100% grounded beef, 0% soybean and 0% Sweet potato) had the least Carbohydrate content of 18.50%. Their Ash contents ranged from 1.95% to 3.47%. Their energy values ranged from 297.75 to 361.99kcal, and dry matter values ranged from 64.38 to 73.18. Sensory properties of the patty samples based on a nine-point hedonic scale showed that all the samples were generally liked by the panelists.
Keywords: Drying methods, physicochemical composition, ginger varieties
Potentials of Sweet Potato Foliage Meals as feed Supplement in Broiler Chickens Diet
*Okereke, C.O., Olaleru,I.F., Okereke, I.H., Ukonu, C.E. and Okwusi, M.C.
National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email:email@example.com
A total of one hundred and twenty (120) day-old broiler chickens with an average initial weight of 90.00g were used in a feeding trial to determine the potentials of sweet potato foliage meals as feed supplement in broiler chickens production. Four roughly iso-nitrogenous (20%) finisher diets containing 2914.45, 2882.23, 2851.38 and 2782.60Kcal/kg ME was used in a complete randomized design for the study. Feed and water were provided to the chickens ad libitum for eight (8) weeks. The results of the proximate composition of sweet potato foliage meal revealed the following; moisture 9.15%, dry matter 90.85%, ash 7.35%, crude fiber 22.52%, fat 2.47%, crude protein 18.82% and NFE 39.70%. The growth performance result for final body weight and weight gain followed the same pattern. Diet I was significantly different from Diet II, III and IV, but diet II and III are similar and differ from diet IV. Total feed intake and average feed intake/bird/day followed the same trend. Diet I, II and III were significantly different from Diet IV. The cost of feed/kg (N) decreases with increase in dietary levels of sweet potato foliage meal. The result of carcass characteristics showed that there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in % dressing weight, breast (%), wing (%) and back cut (%), while there were significant differences in live weight, de-feathered weight, dressed weight, drumstick (%) and thigh (%) with broilers fed diets I, II and III comparing favorably than those fed diet IV. Organs such as heart, kidney, small intestine and large intestine showed no significant differences (P<0.05). The sweet potato foliage meal included up to 10% was tolerated by the broiler chickens in all the parameters evaluated and therefore recommended.
Determinants of Ginger Consumption: Implications for Nutrition Security among Rural Households in Southeast, Nigeria
1Oti, O.G., 2Okpani, B.E. and 3Okpani, F.M.
1Department of Agricultural Economics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike 2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 3Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana
Corresponding authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) consumption provides a sustainable pathway for achieving nutrition security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to its rich nutritional and medicinal properties. This has become imperative in view of the high prevalence of hunger and malnutrition, and rising cases of terminal illnesses such as diabetes, nephropathy, cancer, high blood pressure and asthma in the region. However, there is limited understanding on the level of ginger consumption and what influences its consumption in the region. Therefore, the study examined the determinants of ginger consumption and its implications for nutrition security among rural households in Southeast Nigeria. The study utilized primary data which were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to 480 rural households through a multistage random sampling technique. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, 4-point rating scale and regression analysis. Results showed that 73% of the respondents were females, while 89% of them were married. Majority (84%) were farmers with average farm size of 1.3ha, household size of 8persons, 15years of education, and annual income of $1,875 US. About 47% were aware of the health benefits of ginger, while 29% consumed it regularly. The level of ginger consumption was 1.89. Level of awareness (p<0.05), education (p<0.05) and income (p<0.01) had significant and positive effects on ginger consumption, while the effects of taste (p<0.01), marital status (p<0.01), health status (p<0.01) and ginger processing (p<0.05) were significant and negative.
Keywords: Ginger, Consumption, Nutrition Security, Rural Households, Southeast Nigeria
Comparative Analysis of Consumption Level of Pro Vitamin A Cassava Products in Eastern and Southern Nigeria
Pearl Amadi, Mark Tokula, Helen Anyaegbunam and Godwin Asumugha
Extension Programme, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Pro vitamin A cassava products which include garri, fufu, flakes, tapioca, flour for cake, bread, chin-chin, boons, doughnut, etc, have nutritional, health and economic values for consumption in Eastern and Southern Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of the sample size of 480 respondents cumulatively chosen from Imo, Anambra, Delta and AkwaIbom States using questionnaire and focus group discussion. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Duncan multiple range test and post hoc test) were used to determine the level of consumption, factors influencing consumption and differences in the level of consumption of pro vitamin A cassava products across the States. The result showed moderate level ( =2.05) of consumption and ( =3.8) consumption of pro vitamin A cassava products were positively influenced by health benefits, nutritional value, affordability, accessibility and colour of the products. DNMRT result detected differences in the level of consumption of pro vitamin A cassava products across the States; Imo (1.9150), Delta (1.9150), Anambra (1.9961) and AkwaIbom (2.1426) and highly significant at 1%. The study therefore showed low levels of consumption of the products in Imo and Delta States, in contrast to Anambra and AkwaIbom States. The study therefore call for technology developers (IITA, NRCRI and HarvestPlus Project) to intensify effort on nutritional information on the potentials of pro vitamin A cassava on eradicating vitamin A deficiency in order to boost the consumption level especially in South- East Nigeria.
Keywords: Pro Vitamin A Cassava Products, Consumption, Nigeria
Integrating Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato in school meals program: for the sustenance of reduced under nutrition rates in Malawi
Francis Kuweruza, Stanley Mbewe, Tionge Chadzala, John Kazembe and Felistus Chipungu
International Potato Centre, PO BOX 30136, Lilongwe, Malawi Corresponding Authors’ email: F.Chipungu@cgiar.org
A School Meals Programme is implemented in Malawi to alleviate temporary hunger, improve student attendance, health and dietary practices in pre-schools, primary schools, and the entire community. Free school meals are provided by several stakeholders, mainly by Government of Malawi, World Food Programme and Mary’s Meals through Centralized and Home-Grown Schools Feeding Program with a standard meal of corn-soy blend porridge. Funded by Irish Aid, the International Potato Centre is implementing a project entitled Root and Tuber Crops for Agriculture Transformation in Malawi. Among its activities, CIP with partners is working to contribute to the continued reduction of under nutrition through the integration of resilient and nutritious, Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato (OFSP) into the farming systems, and therefore family diets. Further to this, advocating and demonstrating the inclusion of OFSP in the school porridge, not only to support learning by relieving short term hunger, but also contribute to school meals diversity for better health.
corn-soy flour vs corn-soy flour blended with OFSP puree. The preference taste in terms of colour, taste and texture using a scale of 1 (dislike very much) to 5 (like very much) revealed that 82% of the pupils preferred the OFSP blended porridge against the ordinary porridge (58%). Further, a
In 2019, a pilot study was done in 5 primary schools of Mwanza
District where 384 pupils aged 10 years participated in sensory testing of 2 porridge types; the
30% reduction in the total amount of con-soy flour used was observed
in OFSP puree blended porridge. To upscale this initiative, 53 schools (Neno, Blantyre and Phalombe Districts) were identified and supported with OFSP planting material in 2020/21 season for school community gardens. This was done in collaboration with the head teachers, school health and nutrition teachers, school management committees, and school health and management committees who were also trained on OFSP production, processing, storage, and preparation of the porridge. However, the intervention was affected by the Covid-19 pandemic as school meals were suspended. The initiative is worth up-scaling as pupils preferred the porridge, which is nutritious, home grown suitability and therefore can easily be supported by
Keywords: School meals, sweetpotato, school gardens, home grown
Effect of processing and oil type on carotene bio-accessibility in traditional foods prepared with flour and puree from orange fleshed sweetpotatoes
Sarah Chilungo1,2, Tawanda Muzhingi1,3, Van-Den Truong1,4 and Jonathan C. Allen1
1Food, Bio-processing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, 322 Schaub Hall, Box 7624, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA 2 Department of Agriculture and Research Services, 2Chitedze Research Station, P. O. Box 158, Lilongwe, Malawi
3Food and Nutritional Evaluation Laboratory, International Potato Centre (CIP) Regional Office for SSA, Biosciences for East and Central Africa (BecA), ILRI, Old Naivasha Road, P. O. Box 25171-00603, Nairobi, Kenya 4USDA-ARS, SEA, Food Science Research Unit, North Carolina State University, 322 Schaub Hall, Box 7624, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Corresponding Author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Consumption of Orange-Fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) and products as source of pro-vitamin A is being promoted to tackle vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited information is available on β-carotene retention in foods and delivery after digestion. The study assessed carotene retention and bio-accessibility following in vitro digestion on traditional foods having OFSP among the ingredients. Sunflower oil, margarine and beef fat were evaluated on their effect on β-carotene bio-accessibility. Porridge and chapatis were prepared with either OFSP puree or flours in the formulations. Carotene retention was highest in chapatis (83%) compared to porridge (65%). Micerallisation efficiency of all-trans β-carotene was comparable between similar products but greater in chapatis (62%) than porridge (11%). Sunflower oil had the highest all-trans β-carotene bio-accessibility compared to margarine and beef fat. The results support the promotion of consumption of OFSP-based products as good source of pro-vitamin A to fight VAD.
Keywords: Bio-accessibility, in vitro digestion, oil type, pro-vitamin A, sweetpotato, β-carotene
Evaluation of boiled white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) for optimum cooking time, sensory and textural properties
1,2Alamu E. O, 1Adesokan M., 1 Asrat A., 1Maziya-Dixon B*.
1 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Southern Africa Hub, PO Box 310142, Chelstone, Lusaka, Zambia
2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Oyo Road, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
In West Africa, especially Nigeria, yam is processed into various shelf-stable products such as flakes, chips, and flour and is mainly consumed fresh as boiled or pounded yam. The final quality and consumer preferences for these yam products, especially boiled yam, is determined by specific biophysical and textural attributes that are influenced mainly by genotypes and processing methods. This study evaluates the optimum cooking time (OCT) and cooking qualities (sensorial and textural) of selected pipeline white yam genotypes. A total of 16 genotypes were boiled using a standard operating procedure developed by the RTBfoods project(https://rtbfoods.cirad.fr/). The OCT and water absorption during cooking were observed. The boiled yam samples were subjected to instrumental textural profile analysis (ITPA) using TA. XT Plus Texture Analyzer and sensory textural profile analysis (STPA), respectively. The results showed that the cooking time ranged from 7 to 8 minutes with an average of 10.64 minutes, while water absorption ranged from 0.35 to 5.17%. Water absorption was observed to increase as cooking time increases. Also, there was a significant (p<0.001)positive correlation in the hardness of the STPA & ITPA, while significant(p< 0.001)but negative correlation was observed between the hardness of ITPA and chewiness of STPA at p<0.05. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation also exists between the cohesiveness of ITPA and the mouldability of the STPA. There was a positive correlation between the water absorption and chewiness of the STPA. Thus, some critical textural attributes of boiled yam, such as chewiness and cohesiveness, which influences the quality of the boiled yam product, could be determined indirectly using the cooking time and water absorption parameters.Findings from this study could provide vital information for breeders to select yam genotypes with excellent cooking and textural attributes.
Keywords: Dioscorea rotundata, boiled yam, cooking time, water absorption, textural profile analysis, sensory profile analysis.
Determinants of Labour Use Efficiency among Yam Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria
*Adesiyan, A.T. and Ige, A.O.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yam is an important crop for many producers and consumers in West Africa. It plays an important role in the nutritional, social, cultural, and economic life of the people. A significant proportion of the required labour for yam production has become increasingly difficult to mobilize especially at peak periods. This has been further aggravated by a substantial reduction in the supply of family labour by persistent drift to the non-farm and off-farm activities, which potentially offers higher wages. Given the above problem of scarcity of labour; efficient utilization of available labour could be a way of increasing yam output and returns to yam farmers. This study therefore estimated labour use efficiency in yam production in the study area. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 180 yam farmers using structured questionnaire from the study area. Data were collected on farmers’ socio economic characteristics, input and output data, costs of inputs and output price. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the socio-economic characteristics and ascertain the labour need for yam production activities, while Labour-use frontier model was used to estimate the efficiency of labour-use and its determinants. Results showed that farm size and seed yam has positive relationship with the amount of labour used. One percent increase in the farm size led to about 3.87 percent increase in the amount of labour used and one percent increase in the quantity of seedyam planted led to about 0.79 percent increase in the amount of labour used. Also, education, farming experience and off-farm income have a positive influence on labour use efficiency of the farmers, while household size and access to credit had negative influence. Respondents’ labour use inefficiency is relatively low, ranging from 1 percent to 100 percent with a mean of 9 percent. Yam farmers in this study area were efficient in the use of labour but this labour was not sufficient.
Keywords: Yam Farmers, Labour, Efficiency, Labour-use Frontier Model, Input, Production
Factors Affecting the Demand for Labour among Yam Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Adesiyan, A.T., Adesiyan, O. F., Ige, O. A. and Omodara, O. I. Department of Agricultural Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
This study determined the factors influencing the demand for labour among yam farmers in Ekiti State. This was with a view to explain the substitutability and or complement between labour and other inputs required in yam production. Data was collected from 180 respondents using a multistage sampling technique. The collected was analysed using descriptive statistics and translog cost regression function. Results showed that land, seedyam, capital, labour, output, and cooperating inputs were significant factors affecting the demand for labour at P ≤ 0.05 level. The own price elasticity of all the inputs indicated that they are normal inputs to the farmers. The cross price elasticity of labour to capital, and land to seedyam were positive, indicating that capital is a substitute to labour and land a substitute to seedyam. The cross price elasticity of labour to seedyam was negative, which impliess labour is a complement to seedyam. Therefore, in order to increase or maintain a given level of yam production, seedyam and labour must be increased together or maintained at the given level, while capital can be substituted for labou, and land for seedyam in the study area.
Keywords: Demand, labour, land, seedyam, capital, yam, elasticity, price
Factors Influencing Gender in the Adoption of Value Addition to Sweetpotato Technologies among Post- Harvest Processors in Abia State, Nigeria
Agoh Emilia, Ukeje Blessing and Chukwuemeka Okezie
National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Abia State Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The study analyzed factors influencing gender in the adoption of sweetpotato value addition technologies among post-harvest processors in Abia State, Nigeria. It was guided by the following specific objectives: to- describe the socio-economic characteristic of male and female sweetpotato processors, determine the level of adoption of value added sweetpotato by the processors, and identify factors influencing gender in the adoption of sweet potato value added technologies. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used in the selection of sweetpotato processors. A sample size of 96 processors comprising 48 male and female processors each were involved in the study. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire. From the result, both processors were energetic and still in their productive age, and hence adopted sweetpotato chips, flour, starch, and meat pie. The determinant factors of value addition to sweetpotato by both processors were age, educational level, annual income, processing equipment, processing experience, extension contact, access to credit, membership of cooperative societies and household size. Inadequate finance and high cost of processing equipment were the major constraints encountered by both processors. The adoption of sweetpotato value addition technologies had a significant impact on the livelihood and income level of both processors. Therefore, policies aimed at empowering processors through training and extension of new sweetpotato value addition technologies should be made available in the study area.
Keywords: Factors, Gender, adoption, sweetpotato, value addition
Factors and Constraints associated with Adoption of Cassava Value-Added Technologies among Male and Female Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria
Amadi, G., Nwakor, F. N. and Uwandu, Q. C.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, PMB 7006, Umuahia, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study investigated the influence of gender in the adoption of cassava value-added technologies (CVATs) in Imo State, Nigeria. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, level of adoption of CVATs, factors affecting decision to adopt CVATs, and problems encountered by both male and female farmers in the adoption of CVATs in the study area was solicited with a structured questionnaire designed for the purpose from 70 male and female cassava farmers each. Frequencies, means and percentages were used to present results of the socioeconomic profiles of the farmers, while Probit regression analysis was employed to analyze factors affecting decision to adopt cassava value-addition technologies. Results obtained indicated that most of the respondents were aged (especially females), married, received formal education, had more than 10 years of experience in cassava production, had household size above 4 persons, were mostly subsistent farmers that operated mostly on small sized farm lands, belonged to farmers’ associations and had irregular extension contacts. The results also showed that of the eight major CVATs disseminated in the study area, the most adopted CVATs among the male cassava farmers were gari (mean = 3.68), cassava chips (3.37) and HQCF (3.34), while the most adopted among the female farmers were gari and cassava fufu flour, with mean adoption score values of 4.05 and 3.18 respectively. Factors that significantly influenced decision to adopt CVATs by female farmers were age, household size, farm size, complexity and affordability of technology, while those that significantly influenced male cassava farmers’ decisions were age, education, farm size, farm income and membership of farmers association. The main constraints encountered in the adoption of CVATs were lack of readily organized markets for the products as identified by 78.7% of the male and 82.7% of the female farmers and lack of equipment/facilities as identified by 76.0% and 70.6% of male and females respectively. The study recommends the need to ensure provision of suitable markets, equipment and facilities, and encourage and support lending institutions to provide credit facilities to rural farmers in order to improve adoption of CVATs.
Keywords: Probit regression, Cassava, Value-added technologies and Affordability of technologies
Technical Efficiency of Yam Farmers in Selected Agro-ecological Zones of Nigeria: A Metafrontier Approach
Amaefula, A.1,4, Farquharson, R.2, Ramilan, T.3,2 and Asumugha, G.N.4
1PhD Candidate University of Melbourne, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Building 142 Royal Parade, VIC 3010, Australia
2University of Melbourne, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Building 142 Royal Parade, VIC 3010, Australia
3 Massey University, New Zealand
4National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, PMB 7006 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper investigates the technical efficiency and the existence of environment-technology gap among yam farmers in Nigeria. Cross sectional data was elicited from 360 farmers in selected major yam-producing States in Nigeria in 2013. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency of farmers. Metafrontier analysis was performed to evaluate the environment-metatechnology ratio. The research proves that there are some level of inefficiency and indicates the presence of an environment-technology gap among farmers in Nigeria. It also established that Benue State yam farmers are technically efficient in yam production. Benue and Ondo have favourable environment and technology, while Enugu State farmers are operating in a restrictive environment for yam production in the study area. The main determinants of yam output in Nigeria are farm size, quantity of planting material and labour. The production inputs used for yam production in the different States are significantly different. Yam farmers in Nigeria are e periencing decreasing returns to scale. There is room for farmers’ technical efficiency improvement in Nigeria. From this research, there are two key recommendations for yam production in Nigeria; further research is desirable in developing better technologies and farming systems suitable for yam production in the diverse environmental conditions in Nigeria, and farm-level improvements can be gained from an increase in farm size, increasing the quantity of planting material and improving the labour input (the use of labour-saving devices).
Keywords: Yam production, technical efficiency, metafrontier, stochastic frontier production function
Economic Efficiency of Yam farmers in Selected States of Nigeria
Amaefula, A.1,4, Farquharson, R.2, Ramilan, T.3,2 and Asumugha, G.N.4
1PhD Candidate University of Melbourne, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Building 142 Royal Parade, VIC 3010, Australia
2University of Melbourne, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Building 142 Royal Parade, VIC 3010, Australia
3 Massey University, New Zealand
4National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, PMB 7006 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper investigates the economic efficiency of yam farmers in Nigeria and how it can be improved. A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed in eliciting cross-sectional data from 360 farmers in Nigeria in 2013. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to estimate the economic efficiency of farmers and its determinants. The research proves that Nigerian yam farmers are economically inefficient in yam production. However, Benue and Enugu State are economically efficient in yam production. This research makes these key recommendations for yam production in Nigeria; performance improvement through adoption of full extension packages and the use of appropriate fertilizer. Input subsidy to reduce the cost of yam. Farmers’ access to resources to increase their efficiency in managing large farms and land acquisition/distribution strategies should be adopted to ease farmers’ access to land.
Keywords: Yam cost, efficiency determinants, economic efficiency, stochastic frontier cost function
Profitability Analysis of Cassava Processing in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria
Ukeje, B.A, Agoh, Emilia, and Asumugha, G.N.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The purpose of this study was empirically to analyze the Profitability of Cassava Processing in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. The study population comprised of all cassava processors who have been in cassava processing enterprise for at least five years. Ninety-five (95) cassava processors were randomly sampled from nineteen (19) communities in Enugu. Structured questionnaires were administered to the respondents and descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data collected. Gross Margin (GM) of cassava processing was determined. The findings of this study indicated that majority of the cassava processors in the study area (35.8%) were women who had formal education with family size of 6persons. About 37.9% produce gari, 32.6% foo foo, 19% both gari and foo foo, 61.1% had more than 5 years processing experience. However, the major constraints associated with cassava processing in the study area were inadequate power supply (98.9%) and low credit access (97.9%). The Gross Margin of gari processing was N48,360 and the Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) 1.2, which impplies that for every N1 spent, N2 was gained. The Gross Margin of foo foo production was N 151,320 and the Benefit Cost Ratio 1.5, which implies that for every NI spent, N5 was gained. This showed that cassava processing in the study area was profitable. It is recommended that policies aimed at providing adequate power supply and access to credit should be made available. Men are also encouraged to participate in the business enterprise.
Key words: Profitability, Cassava Processing, Gross Margin
Effect of Credit on the Output Performance of Cassava Producers among Credit and Non- Credit Users in Nigeria
Daniel-Ogbonna, C.I. and Okoye, A.C.
National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Nigeria Corresponding authors’ email: dan.charity1980@ gmail.com
The study analyzed the performance of cassava producers among credit and non-credit users in Abia State, Nigeria. The study obtained data from primary source with the use of structured questionnaire from 120 respondents using a multi-stage, purposive and randomized sampling technique. The study examined socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, estimated the cost and returns of cassava production among credit and non-credit users and the effect of credit on performance of cassava producers with the use of descriptive, budgetary and chow test analyses respectively. The results showed that majority of the respondents were at their middle age, married males with moderate household size. The budget returned N2.25 and N1.82 for every N1.00 spent in cassava production among credit and non credit users respectively. There was significant impact of credit on performance of the producers indicating that the credit users are more productive than non-credit users. This study therefore, call for policies on technological, organizational and institutional interventions aimed at promoting access to credit among cassava producers in Nigeria and beyond. Policies geared towards increased output performance will be considered feasible and viable business for more investments and will yield greater performance of cassava production in the study area.
Keywords: Agricultural Credit, Income, productivity, Chow-test
Socio-Economic Determinants of Sweet potato Production among Small-Scale Farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
1Ejechi, M.E., 2Ode, I.O. and 2Sugh, E.T.
1National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, PMB 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria 2Department of Sociology, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria Corresponding Authors email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study investigated socio-economic determinants of sweet potato production among small- scale farmers in Ebonyi State. Primary data were collected from 400 small-scale sweet potato farmers in Ebonyi State using a multi-stage sampling technique. The instruments used for data collection were interview schedule and focus group discussions. Data collected through these methods were analysed using descriptive statistics like frequency, and percentages. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine factors associated with level of sweet potato production. FGD was analysed by transcribing responses of the discussants. Findings revealed that 46.07% were male, while 53.93% were female farmers. The mean age of the respondents was 43years and 75% had formal education. The mean farm size was 2.8 hectares. Majority (64%) of the respondent had more than 10 years of farming experience. Majority (75.92%) of farmers practice both intercrop and sole cropping of sweet potato. Result of the regression analysis showed that respondent’s age, gender, household size, educational level, farming experience, and membership of farmers association were positive and significantly associated with sweet potato production. The study therefore, recommends that farm inputs agro-chemicals like fertilizer, insecticides and pesticides be subsidized to enable farmers purchase and improve on their yield.
Key words: Sweetpotato, Production, Ebonyi State
Gender Differentials in Access and Utilization of Value Added Innovations of Root And Tuber Crops in South-East, Nigeria
Nwaekpe J.O., Anyaegbunam H.N. and Asumugha, G. N.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia state Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Gender analysis involves efforts to understand how and why issues affect women and men differently and unequally within a particular context or development sector, and what options exist to address them. Women have been reported to play vital roles in agriculture; however, women have limited access to a wide range of physical assets including technological resources. Bridging the gap in access to technology between men and women will help in agricultural development in Africa. This study thus seeks to analyse gender differences in access and utilization of value added innovations of root and tuber crops among rural households in South- east, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 396 rural households from two agricultural zones in the State. Data were collected with the use of structured questionnaires and analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics (Z-test). Findings of this study revealed low level of access to knowledge of root and tuber crops value added innovations. There was also low level of utilization of value-added innovations of root and tuber crops. The result of Z- test showed that there were significant differences in the access (t = 2.0432, p = 0.0432) and utilization (t = 4.2039, p = 0.0000) of value added innovations of root and tuber crops between men and women in Southeast at p < 0.05. The study concludes that women have more access to knowledge and utilization of value added innovations of root and tuber crops in the zone.
Keywords: Gender, Access and Utilization
Analysis of Adoption of NRCRI Improved Cassava Technologies among Farmers in Ikwuano LGA, Abia State, Nigeria
1Israel, M.I., 2Ebe, F.E. and 1Okoye, B.C.
1National Root Crops research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria 2Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, NigeriaCorresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study was carried out in Ikwuano LGA of Abia State on the analysis of adoption of NRCRI improved cassava technologies among farmers in Ikwuano LGA, Abia State, Nigeria. A multi- stage random sampling procedure was used to select 120 cassava farmers from 28 communities and purposive sampling method was used to select 4 communities. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistical tools such as percentage, mean, and frequency distribution. The levels of adoption were measured using six point rating scale. The result shows that majority (65.83%) of cassava farmers in the study area were males, 8.33% less or equal to 30 years, 6.66% more than 60 years old, 4.16% had no formal education, 10.83% primary school education, 20% secondary education, while 65% had tertiary education. About 22.5% had farming experience ranging 1-5years, 41.57% 6-10 years, 20.85% 11-15years, while 15% had over 15years. About 3.33% had 6-10 hectares of land, with 29.17% no contact with extension agents, and 46.67% membership of cooperatives. The most important technology accepted was time of harvesting (4.3) which ranked the highest, followed by time of weeding (4.18). The results of technology adoption showed that the farmers accepted all of the given improved technologies. The most important technology accepted was time of harvesting (4.3), which ranked the highest, followed by time of weeding (4.18).
Keywords: Adoption, NRCRI, cassava technologies
Evaluation of Farmers Utilization of Pro-Vitamin A Cassava (Yellow Root) in Abia State, Nigeria
Nwakor, F.N. and Amadi, G.
National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
This study was conducted among farmers in Abia State to evaluate the utilization patterns of pro- vitamin A (yellow root) cassava. Multi stage sampling technique was used in the study to select the communities and respondents. Six out of the seventeen LGAs in Abia State were purposively selected for this study as follows; Arochukwu, Bende, Umunneochi, Umuahia North, Umuahia South and Isialangwa North. In each of these LGAs, two communities and twenty cassava farmers were selected. The farmers were interviewed by means of structured questionnaires to elicit information about pro-vitamin a cassava utilization. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, tables, percentages, mean and ordinary least square regression analysis. A five point likert type scale of highly utilized, fairly utilized, undecided, highly unutilized and unutilized was used to present the level of utilization of yellow root cassava among the farmers. The result shows a high level of utilization of pro-vitamin A cassava stems (3.52), roots (4.10), fufu (3.95), gari (3.42) and abacha (3.48). Also pro-vitamin A cassava was utilized for making cassava flour and chips. The result also shows that the major factors affecting the utilization of pro-vitamin A cassava among respondents were education (4.605***), market distance (-3.592***), price (2.080**), market value (1.932*), fufu quality (1.892*) and processing value (1.824*). The study recommends that value addition to yellow root cassava should be promoted for increased utilization, also the price of yellow root cassava planting materials should be made affordable for farmers to utilize the technology more.
Keywords: Evaluation, Farmers, Utilization, Pro-vitamin A Cassava
Adoption of Selected Agricultural Extension Capacity Building Activities by Cassava Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
Nwaneri, T. C.
Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study was on the adoption of selected agricultural extension capacity building activities by cassava farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used in selecting 96 cassava farmers. Result showed that males constituted majority (69.8%) of the sampled farmers. Mean age of the farmers was 49 years and their mean household size was 8 persons. A large proportion (74.0%) were married, and most (96.88%) literate, possessing diverse formal educational levels that ranged from primary to tertiary school education. Their mean year of farming experience was 14 years and mean farm size of 2.01 hectares. The result revealed that use of improved varieties, optimum plant population, line planting, fertilizer application, correct spacing, planting depth, timely weeding, timely planting, tillage practices (6.0 each) and application of herbicide (4.2) were perceived by the farmers as being available and the mean adoption scores of these activities were above the threshold mean of 4.0 indicating that they were adopted. It is therefore recommended that Agricultural extension policies and measures to enhance output of cassava farmers are advocated because the study discovered an increase in their productivity after adoption. Cassava based capacity building activities that were at the interest and trial stages of adoption need to be properly demonstrated and intensified by extension officers, training and re-training on components and exposing farmers to specialized field trips would facilitate the adoption of technologies.
Key words: Adoption, Capacity Building Activities, Cassava farmers
Effect of Selected Socio-economic Factors Influencing Consumption of Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato among Households’ in Anambra State, Nigeria
Nwokocha, Ivy Nwamaka, Tokula Mark, Anyaegbunam Helen and Asumugha Godwin
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, P.M.B 7006. Umuahia, Abia State Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The study assessed effect of selected socio-economic factors influencing consumption of Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato (OFSP) among Households’ in Anambra State. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to elicit data. Two agricultural zones, two blocks and two circles were purposively selected because of their proximity to the sub-station of National Root Crops Research Institute, Igbariam and intensity of production of orange fleshed sweetpotato. Finally, 15 respondents were randomly selected and a total of 120 respondents were used as the sample size. Structured questionnaires were also used to interview the respondents. Primary data were elicited and data analyzed, using descriptive and inferential statistics. Households’ consumption level of OFSP showed high level of consumption in form of chips, boiled, fried, roasted, pottage and the leaves for livestock feed, with grand mean of 2.17. Result of the regression analysis showed significant relationship of OFSP consumption on sex, farming experience, farm size, household size, membership of association, and extension contact. The study concluded that socio-economic factors influenced consumption of OFSP and recommended that there is need to popularize and promote consumption of OFSP through sensitization by extension services programmes in the area, since result showed low consumption of OFSP in form of confectionaries and juice drink.
Keywords: Socio-economic, Households, Consumption and Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato
Okoroh, Juochi Patience
Imo State University, Owerri Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study assessed cassava farmers’ adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava variety (TMS 07/593 yellow root) in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study ascertained cassava farmers awareness of pro-vitamin A cassava variety, examined the level of adoption, determined the factors influencing adoption and also identified the constraints to adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava variety in Imo State. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted in the selection of 90 cassava farmers. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordinary least square regression analysis. Results revealed that greater proportion (75.6%) of the farmers were aware of Pro-vitamin A cassava variety. Many (47%) respondents attained the adoption stage in the adoption process. Age, educational level, farm income and cooperative membership significantly influenced the level of adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava variety at 5% probability level. High moisture content and Low output after processing (100% each) and root decay when not harvested on time i.e. after a period of 8months (78%) were the major constraints to adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava variety. The study concludes that the adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava variety in Imo State is low (adoption index 3.5). The study therefore recommends that crop breeders should make effort to reduce the moisture content in the pro-vitamin A cassava root because high moisture leads to low output when processed. Also, farmers should endeavor to harvest on time within the period of 8 months.
Keywords: Adoption, Pro-vitamin A cassava, Farmers and Imo State
Consumption Pattern Analyses of Cassava Products among Rural Households in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
1Okoye, A.C., 2Okoye, F.U., 1Daniel-Ogbonna, C. and Okoye, B. C.
1National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike P.M.B. 7006 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria 2Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
This study provides empirical evidence on households’ consumption pattern of cassava products in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A multistage procedure involving purposive and random sampling methods were used to collect data with the use of structured questionnaire. The results show that the household head were at their middle age, mainly married female heads with secondary education and large household size. The study identified gari, pounded cassava and tapioca as the three major cassava products consumed, while rice, yam and beans as three major substitutes consumed by the respondents in the area. The result also shows that the respondents preferred gari over other cassava products with major reason being household choice, nutritional value and availability. The results of the ordered probit regression show that coefficient for age was negative, while coefficients of cost of cassava products, marital status and household size were directly related to choice of cassava products consumed in the study area. The study also showed a positive correlation between cassava products and its substitute. The study raises policy issues on need to raise the current level of consumption and utilization of cassava products, especially on creating awareness on the nutritional values of each product to increase utilization and consumption of all products at affordable price.
Keywords: Gari, Consumption, Decision, and Multi-nominal Logit
Comparative Analysis of Adoption Level of Pro Vitamin A Cassava in Eastern and Southern Nigeria
1 Pearl Amadi, 1Ekwuruchi Mbanaso, 1Godwin Asumugha and 2Ike Nwachukwu
1Extension Programme, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike 2Department of Rural Sociology and Extension, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The success of any agricultural innovation depends on its adoption by farmers. The study comparatively analyzed the adoption level of pro-vitamin A cassava among farmers in Eastern and Southern Nigeria. The study determined- the level of adoption, factors affecting adoption and analyzed differences in the level of adoption of pro vitamin A cassava across the States. Purposive and multi-stage random sampling techniques were employed to select 480 respondents from Imo, Anambra, Delta and AkwaIbom States. Data were collected with a well structured questionnaire and focus group discussion and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics (Duncan new multiple range test). The result showed high level ( =3.4) of adoption and adoption of pro vitamin A cassava were severely affected by inadequate funding and unavailability of the stems ( =3.3). DNMRT result detected differences in the level of adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava indicating mean scores in Imo (3.75), Delta (3.65), Anambra (3.94) and AkwaIbom (4.12) significant at 1%. The result implies that farmers in AkwaIbom State had the highest rate of adoption, followed by Anambra, Imo and Delta. The study showed high levels of adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava varieties but in varying degrees across the States. It is therefore recommended that nutritional information campaigns about the cassava should be prioritized to further sensitize the farmers, and stems of these cassava varieties should be made available to farmers to take advantage of the benefit of the innovation.
Keywords: Pro Vitamin A cassava, Adoption, Nigeria
Determinants of Adoption of Pro-Vitamin A Cassava Varieties by Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria
Uwandu, Q.C., Anyaegbunam, H.N. and Asumugha, G.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The study examined the determinants of adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava varieties by farmers in Delta State, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling technique, 120 pro vitamin A cassava farmers were selected from Delta State. Data were obtained using interview schedule with well- structured questionnaire and analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Tobit regression model). Results showed that the coefficients of education, household size and farming experience had a direct relationship with the adoption of pro vitamin A cassava varieties at 1% and 5% level of probability. The coefficients of farm income and access to extension visit had an indirect relationship with the adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava at 10% level of probability respectively. The adoption means score implies that there were moderate adoptions of pro-vitamin A cassava in the study area. The respondents identified inadequate funding and high cost/unavailability of pro-vitamin A cassava stem as major factors affecting the adoption. Level of education, household size and farming experience positively determined farmers’ adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava varieties, while farm income and access to extension services negatively determined their degree of adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava varieties. It is therefore recommended that more efforts of the extension workers in collaboration with the technology developers are highly needed to carry out nutritional information campaigns and agricultural shows with regards to pro-vitamin A cassava to boost the adoption in the study area.
Keywords: Determinants, Pro vitamin A cassava, Farmers, Adoption, Varieties
Effects of Marketing Extension Services on the Control of Postharvest Losses of Root and Tuber Crop Produce in Abia State Nigeria
1Solomon Chimela Nwafor, 2Francis Shagbaor Wegh, 2Agness Agbanugo Ikwuba and 3Adegbola Adetayo Jacob
1Farming Systems Research and Extension, National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria
2Department of Sociology, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
3Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, Ilorin, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study assessed the effect of agricultural marketing extension on control of post-harvest losses of root and tuber crop produce in Abia State. This study employed a public opinion survey between March 2017 and January 2018. Using the multistage sampling technique and a structured questionnaire as an instrument, data were collected from a sample of three hundred and eighty (380) respondents in the study area. Percentages, mean scores, and regression analysis were used as statistical tool for data analysis. The overall mean score of the farmers on the effects of marketing extension services on the control of postharvest losses of root and tuber crop produce was 2.85. Marketing extension services had significant effect on the volume of postharvest losses of root and tuber crop produce in the study area given the F- statistics of 102.56 significant at 1% level. Marketing of root and tuber crop produce/products were adversely affected by poor linkages within the marketing, processing and production chains, poor market-orientation and inadequate processing facilities leading to high levels of produce wastage. Therefore, organizations and agencies providing marketing extension services (ADPs, Research Institutes, Universities, NGOs) should do so in accordance with farmers’ needs. Need to develop, support and promote training in marketing skills and services for agricultural marketing extension workers.
Effect of Socio-economic Factors on Cassava Production Output in Benue State, Nigeria
Tokula, Mark and Nwokocha, Ivy
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, P.M.B 7006. Umuahia, Abia State. Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The study assessed the effects of socio-economic factors on cassava production output in Benue State. Multi-stage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents that provided data for the study. Two zones of the state namely; Zone B and Zone C were randomly selected, and two blocks and three circles. Finally, five farmers were also randomly selected and a total of 120 farmers were used as the sample size. Primary data were used and data analysis involved both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results show that 72.50% of the respondents were males, 80.00% married, 44.17% with farm sizes between 1.0 – 2.9ha and majority (75.00%) of the farmers belong to community associations, while 75.00% planted both improved and local cassava varieties. Education, marital status, membership of association, fertilizer use, and weed control method and farm size had a direct relationship with production, while age was inversely related to production. Some of the major constraints to cassava production were also revealed to be high cost of inputs (herbicides and fertilizer), financial constraints, high cost of labour and low access to planting materials. It is therefore, recommended that agricultural inputs (herbicides and fertilizer) be made available at affordable price for the farmers use. This will solve one of the major constraints militating against cassava production as indicated by the respondents.
Key words: Farmers, Cassava, Output and Benue State
Gender Participation; Production and Marketing options among Sweetpotato Farmers in Enugu State
Udemezue J.C., Anyaegbunam, H.N. and Okoye, A.C.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, PMB7006 Umudike Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email; firstname.lastname@example.org
The study investigated gender participation; production and marketing options among sweetpotato farmers in Enugu State. The specific objectives were to determine the factors affecting the choice of marketing used by sweetpotato farmers in the study area and gender participation among sweetpotato farmers. Primary data was used to elicit information from 120 sweetpotato farmers. Descriptive statistics and liner regression model were used for data analysis. The average age for the farmers was 47 years and 40 years for male and female each. An average household size of 11 and 10 persons for male and female farmers respectively was observed. The results also revealed that majority (male= 75.0%; female= 86.7%) had farm sizes ranging from 0.1 – 1 hectare each with mean farm size of 0.9 and 0.7 hectares for male and female farmers respectively. In terms of gender participation in sweetpotato operations, female farmers recorded higher participation in the entire sweetpotato farming operations compared to the males. Participation in market options was influenced by sex, farm size, income, number of sacks taken to market and quantity of sweetpotato produced. It is recommended that State government in partnership with the community leaders should encourage sweetpotato farmers to increase the land area under cultivation to enhance their productivity, income and improve their standard of living through the provision of farm land, farm machinery, fertilizers and herbicides at subsidized rates. Since both male and female farmers participate in all aspects of sweetpotato enterprise development activities, researchers should develop gender sensitive technologies for information dissemination to enhance production, productivity and quality of processed products.
Keywords: Influence, sweetpotato farmers, participation
Improved individual ambient ware potato stores are economically viable and can increase incomes of smallholder potato farmers in Uganda
Pieter Wauters1, 2, Monica L. Parker3, Diego Naziri4, 5, Alice Turinawe6
1International Potato Center (CIP), Uganda
2Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM), Germany 3International Potato Center (CIP), Kenya
4International Potato Center (CIP), Vietnam
5Natural Resources Institute (NRI), University of Greenwich, United Kingdom 6Makerere University, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agribusiness and Natural Resource Economics, Uganda
Corresponding authors’ email: P.Wauters@cgiar.org
Ugandan smallholder potato farmers sell majority of their production immediately after harvest. Only a few farmers store small quantities of potato for later sale as ware potato, predominantly in traditional diffused light storage facilities. To promote ware potato storage for later sale, improved collective and individual ambient storage units were introduced. They can maintain marketability of stored potato for up to 3 months. Cost-benefit analysis methods have been used to compare the economic performance of improved ambient stores with traditional storage facilities. Due to management challenges, only a few of the traditional and improved collective storage units generated profit. The improved individual stores, however, performed overall very well. Results indicate that these stores generated on average higher profit margins than improved collective stores. They also have an average payback period of 3-4 years that could even be reduced to less than one year if used at full capacity. Due to their characteristics, improved individual ambient ware potato stores thus seem to be particularly suitable to substantially increase the income of potato farming households, including female-headed households.
Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, improved individual ambient store, Uganda, ware potato storage
Farmers’ perceptions on varietal diversity, trait preferences and diversity management of bush yam (Dioscorea praehensilis Benth.) in Ghana
Adeyinka S. Adewumi1,2, Paul A. Asare1, Michael O. Adu1, Kingsley J. Taah1, Selorm Akaba3, Mubalama J. Mondo2,4 and Paterne A. Agre1*
1Department of Crop Science, University of Cape Coast, University Post Office, Cape Coast, Ghana
2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan 5320, Nigeria
3Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Cape Coast, University Post Office, Cape Coast, Ghana
4Department of Crop Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu 3323, Democratic Republic of Congo
*Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.com
Bush yam (Dioscorea praehensilis Benth.) is an important food and cash crop species in some West and Central African countries. Unfortunately, several socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and agronomic constraints hinder its cultivation, and thus lead to its underutilization and gradual disappearance. To effectively promote its cultivation and utilization, knowledge of its diversity, distribution, management, and farmers’ varietal preferences is necessary. This study, therefore, used a participatory rural appraisal survey to assess such information in 23 villages from three regions of Ghana. A total of 42 D. praehensilis morphotypes were recorded and grouped in seven classes based on the tuber flesh colour. The Shannon diversity index (H’ = 1.88), equitability (0.65), and Margalef species richness (2.53) revealed the presence of moderate diversity and distribution in the surveyed regions. Farmers’ variety trait preferences included mainly the early maturity (21.1%), smooth tuber texture (16.5%), stability in tuber flesh colour (7.86%), good storage aptitude (7.6%), and high tuber productivity (12.8%). In contrast, D. praehensilis production and utilization rates have declined mainly due to poor culinary quality (39.9%) and poor agronomic traits (20.7%) of most morphotypes. Survey results showed that D. praehensilis is largely an insitu conserved species in Ghana (60.0%). This study provided an insight on D. praehensilis diversity, distribution and farmers’ varietal preferences in Ghana which will guide its genetic resource conservation and plant breeding intervention.
Keywords: Dioscorea praehensilis, Participatory rural appraisal survey, Ghana, Farmers’ preference criteria, Genetic resource conservation
Orange-Flesh Sweetpotato for Ready-To-Use Waffle Flour –Mix
Genego Emanuella, Boakye Abena, Oduro Ibok, and Ellis William Otoo
Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Presenting Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Baked products play a vital role in the diet and nutrition of people. Drawbacks to their potential in food and nutrition security endeavors in Africa is the over reliance on wheat, an imported ingredient, and the nutritional inadequacies of final products. One such product gaining popularity among the elite in sub-Saharan Africa is waffles. This study investigated the feasibility of developing a ready-to-use waffle composite flour-mix from orange-flesh sweetpotatoes (OFSP) and wheat. Standard methods were used for all analytical tests and in processing non-flour ingredients into flour. Human panels were used in the evaluation of organoleptic properties of baked products. Preliminary studies to establish baseline for flour substitution: 0% (100% wheat flour) – 40% OFSP composite flour showed a consumer preference (mean overall liking of 7.33) for the 40% OFSP flour mix and 5.33 for 100% wheat flour. Further studies with an informed panel showed appreciable organoleptic properties for 60% OFSP flour mixes with key indicators being sweet smelling aroma, moderate sugariness and appealing colour; an indication of the positive influence of the OFSP flour on the final product. Of importance is the fact that OFSP inclusion led to 60% reduction in the sugar added. Also, 29% of the consumer panel of 102 selected the 60% OFSP as the most liked product. The OFSP- mix also showed appreciable mineral composition with high iron (80.50mg/kg) and potassium (535.81mg/kg) contents. The findings show potential for OFSP in the development of consumer- acceptable ready-to-use waffle flour-mixes which also provides a good alternative for health- conscious consumers.
Keywords: Orange fleshed sweet potato, waffles, ready-to-use, flour mix
Medium-throughput methods to predict cooking quality of boiled cassava for genotypes screening and selection
Thierry Tran1,2, Xiaofei Zhang1, Hernan Ceballos1, Jhon Larry Moreno1, Jorge Luna1, Maria Alejandra Ospina1, Andrés Escobar1, Sandra Salazar1, Nelson Morante1, John Belalcazar1, Dominique Dufour2, and Luis Augusto Becerra Lopez-Lavalle1
1 Alliance Bioversity-CIAT, CGIAR Research Program on Roots Tubers and Bananas (RTB), Cali, Colombia
2 Qualisud, Univ. Montpellier, CIRAD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ. d’Avignon, Univ. de La Réunion, Montpellier, France
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Cooking quality for consumer acceptance of boiled cassava is an essential criteria for breeding programs. Selecting improved genotypes for cooking quality is increasingly important to maximize the likelihood of adoption, in addition to agronomic criteria such as yields and tolerance to pests and diseases. Conventional tests of cooking quality, such as probing the product’s softness with a fork to determine optimum cooking time (CT), are time-consuming and labor intensive; requiring up to one hour per genotype. Hence, in a standard food-quality lab, only a few dozen of samples can be screened per day, whereas selection for breeding requires testing up to several hundred genotypes. The RTBfoods project has developed a faster method by objectively measuring water absorption, root density and texture. Among these, water absorption and change in root density after 30 minutes of boiling significantly correlated with CT (R2 = 0.60 to 0.66). Thus, this approach makes it possible to screen up to 80 genotypes per day by confidently classifying short-cooking and long-cooking behaviors of cassava roots, i.e. medium- throughput screening. Accumulating further cooking quality data will facilitate ongoing efforts to develop a true high-throughput phenotyping platform with the capacity to screen the target several hundred samples per day. A particularly promising approach is the ongoing investigation of correlations between cooking quality parameters and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which would reduce the analysis time from 30 to 2 minutes per genotype.
Scaling flash drying of cassava starch and flour at small scale
Luis Taborda A.1,2, Arnaud Chapuis3, Simon Lukombo4, Suraju Adegbite5, Makuachukwu Ojide6, Edmond Totin7, Adebayo Abass4, Murat Sartas4,8, Marc Schut4,8, Luis Augusto Becerra Lopez-Lavalle1, Dominique Dufour3, and Thierry Tran1,3
1 Alliance Bioversity-CIAT, CGIAR Research Program on Roots Tubers and Bananas (RTB), Cali, Colombia
2 National University of Colombia
3 Qualisud, Univ. Montpellier, CIRAD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ. d’Avignon, Univ. de La Réunion; CGIAR Research Program on Roots Tubers and Bananas (RTB), Montpellier, France 4 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), CGIAR Research Program on Roots Tubers and Bananas (RTB), Ibadan, Nigeria
5 Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi (FIIRO), Lagos, Nigeria
6 Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu-Alike (AE-FUNAI), Nigeria
7 Université d’Agriculture de Kétou, Bénin
8 Wageningen University (WUR), the Netherlands
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Small-scale flash drying is a promising technology to meet the increasing demand for high- quality cassava flour (HQCF). The technology significantly reduces fungal and dust contaminations and reduces health risks for consumers. However, the configuration and operating conditions of existing flash dryers are sub-optimal, leading to high energy use and operating costs. Since 2013, the CGIAR Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) program in collaboration with local stakeholders across Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria and Colombia developed a numerical modelling method to design energy- and cost-efficient flash dryers, and proven its effectiveness through construction and testing of a pilot-scale dryer. Scaling Readiness was used to identify bottlenecks for the uptake of the improved small-scale flash dryer innovation to the private sector. Through fieldwork data collection and online semi- structured interviews, the analysis highlighted the role of training sessions and sustained technical support to strengthen the capacity of stakeholders – and therefore, the increased uptake of flash dryer innovation. We also found a relationship between the economic value of theinnovation and stakeholders’ willingness to adopt it across scales. For e ample, during the first six months after training, two cassava processors (out of seven) adopted innovations and increased their processing capacity by 23% and 50%, and profitability by 8% and 10%, corresponding to extra income of about $10,000/year/processor. We conclude that using the Scaling Readiness approach in collaboration with relevant private sector actors can improve uptake of agro-industrial innovations such as flash dryers, leading to gains in income and public health.
Assessment of 20 Biofortified Cassava Genotypes for Quality Gari Properties and Products in an Advance Yield Trial
Akpotuzor, P., Abioye, R., Parkes, E. Y., Rabbi, I., Ogungbesan, A., Aina, O. O., Agbona, A. and Kulakow, P.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Presenting Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gari is a yellow-creamy-white, granular flour with a slightly- fermented flavour and -sour taste made from fermented, gelatinized fresh cassava storage roots. This study assessed 20 bio- fortified cassava genotypes in an advance yield trial in the 2018/2019 cropping season for gari and eba yield and quality. Fifteen genotypes and five checks were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, replicated three times in an advanced yield trial. Growth ratings performance and reaction to pests and diseases were monitored at 1, 3 and 6 months after planting. Harvest traits at 12 months after planting included fresh root yield, harvest index, dry matter content (DMC), starch content and total carotenoids content (TCC). Ten kg (10kg) samples of roots were processed into gari and then into eba. Products were evaluated using standard procedures for quality properties like mouldability, cohesiveness, stickiness, drawness, texture and colour. Data were analysed using R. Results showed genotypes IBA154810 and IBA070593 performed better than others with DMC of 39.5% and 36.9% respectively. The highest starch value was 29.5% for IBA154810 and 28.0% for IBA070593. IKN130010 had the highest TCC value of 17.9μg/g fresh weight. IBA154810 has the highest swelling capacity of 40cm3 per 10g, while IBA150815 and IBA150621 had the lowest gari swelling ability value of 19.3cm3 and 19.1cm3, respectively. Five genotypes gave the best gari quality. IBA070593 provided the best quality of bio-fortified eba. The study identified excellent clones of high food quality. This information is needed for product advancement decisions.
Keywords: Cassava, gari, eba, bio-fortification, total carotenoids, product quality
Proximate and Sensory Attributes of Cassava Roots and Gari Produced from Newly Bred Cassava Genotypes in National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike
Kanu, N. A., Amanze, N. J. and Kingsley, T. L.
National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Cassava is botanically known as Manihot esculenta Crantz. It is the fifth most important staple in the world. In terms of production and consumption, it is the second most important staple food after rice in least developed countries. It possesses the potential to tackle malnutrition and also generate income. As such, breeders are working hard on protecting and improving its traits. This
study investigated the proximate composition of the cassava genotypes and the sensory attribute of the gari produced from them. The cassava used was sourced from National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike and processed into gari. The proximate composition of the cassava tuber and the sensory parameters of gari were evaluated. Result indicates that the moisture content of the cassava genotypes ranged from 64.40-83.40%, while ash, fat, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 0.29-1.15%, 0.60-1.00%, 0.60-1.45%, 1.75-2.45% and 11.70-27.93%
respectively. The proximate was significantly different
appearance, aroma, taste, after taste, mouldability, texture and general acceptability ranged from 4.86-6.9, 5.29-6.81, 5.14-6.48, 5.67-6.95, 5.05-7.19, 5.05-7.33, and 5.43-7.24 respectively. The result of the sensory attributes showed that the sensory parameters tested are significantly different with the check sample TME 419 scoring highest in all the parameters except in
In sensory attributes, mouldability.
Sensory Evaluation and Physicochemical Properties of Abacha Produced with different Yellow Cassava Varieties
Ogbete, C., Ofoeze, M. and Madu, T.
National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike P.M.B 7006 Umuahia
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a dicotyledonous plant and widely grown root crop in tropical regions of Africa and Latin America. Through breeding, cassava has been improved over the years giving rise to the vitamin A yellow cassava for better nutrition. Abacha is one of the products from cassava in the Eastern States of Nigeria. Abacha is used to prepare a delicacy popularly known as ”African salad”. There is need to provide information on the use of the newly bred yellow roots for the purpose of abacha to help in the utilization of the crop for better nutrition and income generation. This paper evaluates the sensory and physicochemical properties of abacha made with yellow cassava roots and the correlation of the general acceptability(GA) with the starch content of the cassava (Umucass 44, 45, and 46) using NR81784 as a control. The result of the sensory evaluation shows that the abacha samples were accepted apart from Umucass 46 (5.33) that has significant difference with the control (8.20). The HCN content of the abacha samples ranged from 1.12 to 0.84 for NR87184 and Umucass 44 respectively. The percentage starch yield shows that Umucass 45(16.61%) has no significant difference (P>0.05) with the control NR 87184(21.15%) and Umucass 44(13.81%). Umucass 46 ranked lowest with 8.02%. There is positive correlation between the starch content and the GA. The percentage loss of the caroteniod content of the abacha sample ranges from 35 to 40% with Umucass 44 having the highest loss.
Consumer Preference: the missing link in post harvest value chain research
Ikechukwu S. Obiajulu1, Okechukwu Richardson2, Victor O. Okoruwa1 and Adebayo Abass2, and Jennifer O. Akubor1
1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
High post-harvest losses in the processing of cassava to starch, suggests a need to process alternative products such as High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) which produces less waste than starch. HQCF can be used as a partial substitute for bread production, which is a staple food in Nigeria. The study examined the preference and willingness to pay for HQCF-wheat and other bread consumers in South-West, Nigeria based on product attributes. Data were collected from 36 consumers with full awareness of HQCF-wheat bread consumption and 121 that consume other bread types in the study area. Data were analysed using conjoint analysis. The relative importance table showed texture as the most important attribute and the most preferred attribute combination being a brown, soft, less sugary bread in sliced form at ₦200 (1USD = ₦306.9), while a white hard sugary bread in unsliced form at ₦240 were least preferred. Consumption pattern showed that one loaf was consumed five times and twice a week at a price of ₦50 and ₦70; one loaf consumed twice a week each at a price of ₦70 and ₦150; one loaf consumed on a daily basis each at a price of ₦200 and ₦250 for HQCF wheat and other bread types respectively. Te ture attribute had the highest WTP (₦274.28 and ₦323.03) using ₦200 and ₦250 as current prices for HQCF-wheat and other bread types respectively. Furthermore, consumers were willing to pay up to ₦283.34 and ₦330.96 for soft HQCF-wheat and other bread types respectively.
Keywords: Agriculture, AR4D, Conjoint analysis, Cassava, HQCF, Bread
Gender-differentiated relative preference for sweetpotato varietal traits among farmers: A case of central Uganda
Josephine Namirimu2, Julius J. Okello1 and Muganga A. Kizito2
1International Potato Center (CIP), Uganda
2Department of Statistical Methods and Actuarial Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box, 7062 Kampala, Uganda
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Adoption of improved varieties depends on farmers’ perception and acceptance of their varietal traits. In Uganda, the sweetpotato breeding program has mainly been driven by food security goals, with focus on yield enhancement. However, current economic and demographic changes in Uganda are expected to affect farmer demand for varieties. The Lancaster demand theory posits that demand for a good is based on demand for its attributes/traits. This study investigates preference for the different sweetpotato varietal traits among male and female farmers by examining farmer selection and ranking of major agronomic/food-security, sensory, market and environment-oriented traits. The study used qualitative methods, namely, focus group discussions (FGDs) to collect data on major traits farmers look out for when selecting sweetpotato variety to grow. Two FGDs comprising 4-8 farmers were conducted in sixty randomly selected villages in Mpigi and Masaka districts of Central Uganda. Farmers were asked to identify key preferred traits, and then rank the top five through individual voting. The highest five ranked traits by men, in order of importance, were yield, root size, stress tolerance, in-field root storage and sweetness respectively. For women, the top five traits were: yield, mealiness, root size, early maturity, in-field root storage. Food security traits (i.e., yield and root size) are major traits across gender groups, but women prefer earliness also. Sensory attributes (mealiness and sweetness) are important but differ by gender. The findings imply the breeding program needs to pay attention to gender and non-yield traits also.
Occurrence of Postharvest Fungal Rots of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.) In Southwest Nigeria and Control with Sawdust Extracts
1Beckley, F. and 2Awoyemi, S. O.
1Department of Crop Protection, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta 2Department of Crop Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
A study was conducted in three Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) of Southwest, Nigeria to evaluate the incidence and pathogenicity of postharvest fungal rots of sweetpotato and their control with extracts of sawdust from some tropical plants. Survey of rotted tubers was conducted in 18 markets across the three AEZs: Humid rainforest (HF), Derived Savannah (DS), and Southern Guinea Savannah (SGS). Fungi associated with rotted tubers were isolated, identified and their pathogenicity determined. In vitro fungitoxicity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, Gmelina arborea and Cola nitida sawdust extracts were assessed in an experiment laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replicates. Six fungi species found to be associated with rot on tubers were Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium oxalicum and Fusarium oxysporum. Highest (35%) rot incidence was observed in HF zone with R. stolonifer as the most prevalent. Botryodiplodia theobromae was most prevalent (68.75%, 54.54%) in SGS and DS zones respectively. All the six isolated fungi were pathogenic to sweetpotato but induced varying levels of rot severity. Botryodiplodia theobromae, R. stolonifer or A. niger induced complete (100%) rot of inoculated tubers. Sawdust extracts reduced mycelial growth of test pathogens at three sawdust concentrations (50 g/L, 75 g/L and 100 g/L) tested. Inhibition of fungal growth increased with extract concentration. Anogeissus leiocarpus sawdust extract at 100 g/L exhibited highest range of mycelial growth inhibition (8.80 – 73.0%) across tested pathogens. Gmelina arborea sawdust extract at 100 g/L significantly inhibited (p<0.05) mycelial growth of B. theobromae, P. oxalicum and T. viride, while C. nitida exhibited strong fungitoxicity to F. oxysporum at 100 g/L. Application of the sawdust extracts at these concentrations has the potential to minimize postharvest fungal rot of sweetpotato.
Keywords: Occurrence, Postharvest, Fungal rot, Sweetpotato, Sawdust extracts
Effect of Processing Methods on Proximate and Anti-Nutritional Composition of Three Different Varieties of Harvested Cassava Roots and Dried Chips
Nwohu, N.O., Oriaku, L.C. and Kanu, A.N.
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike. P.M.B. 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a cheap and reliable source of food in the developing countries. The proximate and anti-nutritional composition analysis of three different varieties of harvested cassava roots (TMS 30572, TMS 98/0505 and TMS0 1/1368) and their dried chips were evaluated in other to access the effect of the processing methods applied in the study. Each sample of the roots was divided into four different portions such that fresh pulp, dried chips, fresh and dried peels were obtained and was used for the analysis. All the analyses were carried out using standard methods. The study shows that [soaking + sun drying] and sun drying only improves and retains the proximate composition of the dried chips and the dried peels respectively when compared with the fresh pulp and the fresh peels across the varieties except moisture and fat for TMS98/0505 which incurred loss of 4.2 % in the dried chips. The moisture loss incurred by the dried chips and the dried peels ranged between (56.6-69.2 %) and (39.7-45.3 %) respectively across varieties and significant at (p<0.05). Also, [Soaking + sun drying] and sun drying only led to the loss of some part of anti-nutritional composition of the dried chips and dried peels when compared with the fresh pulp and fresh peels respectively across the varieties. The losses incurred were also significant at (p<0.05). Based on the result, [soaking + sun drying] and sun drying methods only should be recommended for the production of cassava chips and the dried peels used in producing other cassava based products for human and animal consumption, since it was able to improve and retain the proximate composition and reduced the anti-nutrients to safe levels.
Keywords: [soaking + sun drying], proximate composition, anti-nutritional composition, fresh pulp, dried chips, fresh and dried peels
Possible Variability in Yield and Proximate Composition of Gari Produced with Nigerian White and Yellow Fleshed Cassava Varieties
Ohuoba, A. N1., Ukpabi, U. J1. and Kukwa, R. E2.
1National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike P.M.B 7006 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria 1,2Centre for Food Technology and Research (CEFTER) Benue State University, P.M.B 102119 Makurdi, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
The study evaluated possible variability in the yield and proximate composition of gari produced with some white and yellow fleshed cassava varieties grown in Nigeria. The tuberous roots of these experimental cassava varieties (TME 419, TMS 30572, NR 01/0004, TMS 950505, NR 87184, Nwageri, Umucass 44 and Umucass 45) were randomly harvested from a pilot farm of National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria. The experimental roots were conventionally processed into gari samples. For each of these cassava varieties, the gari yield and proximate composition of this food product were determined and statistically evaluated. Results indicate variations among the different cassava roots varieties studied. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the yield, moisture, ash, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrates. White fleshed cassava variety TME 419 (28.1290%) recorded the highest percentage yield in gari, while the lowest was obtained in yellow fleshed Umucass 45 (14.8450%). Moisture content ranged from 8.2475% (White fleshed TME 419) to 10.8175% (yellow fleshed Umucass 45); Ash 0.4990% (white fleshed TME 419) to 2.2100% (yellow fleshed Umucass 45); Fibre 0.8140% (white fleshed Nwageri) to 1.6795% (white fleshed NR87184); Fat 0.0895% (white fleshed Nwageri) to 1.2235% (Umucass 45); Protein 0.5310% (white fleshed TME 419) to 2.7125% (white fleshed Nwageri) and Carbohydrates 83.9590% (yellow fleshed Umucass 45) to 89.57405% (white fleshed TME 419). These findings could be a bench mark for processors of cassava roots.
Keywords: Cassava, variety, processing, gari, proximate composition
Proximate Analysis of 26 Accessions of Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea Batatas) in Osun State, Nigeria
1Ojeleye, A.E., 1Afolabi, M. S. and 2Akoroda M. O.
1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Osun State University, Osogbo, P.M.B.4494 Osun State
2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ibadan Corresponding Authors; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Twenty six (26) sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] accessions were screened during cropping seasons of 2018 and 2019, to evaluate their proximate potentials under Southern Guinea Savannah. On the basis of differences in the proximate composition of 26 sweet potato accessions were determined. Representative samples were obtained from each freshly harvested tuber and subjected to proximate analyses; Moisture, Dry matter, Ash, Crude protein, Crude fibre, Fat, and Carbohydrates contents. There was no appreciable effect of season on the proximate composition of the tested varieties. The tested accessions has dry matter content range between 25% and 35%, the study also revealed that sweet potato accessions (Yau, Felicia, Orita, Ex-Igbariam Molete, Felicia NN, BD, Offa 2, OF) contain higher Carbohydrate content (33.6%, 32.6%, 32.36%, 32.03%, 31.96%, 31.64%, 31.45% and 32.26%) respectively than other accession which ranged between (29.95-21.7%). Minimum Carbohydrate content was recorded in accession Doris (19.94%) and low Fat content which makes it suitable for diabetic patients and preparation of other confectionaries. While Yau, PK55 and PK66 are high in dry matter and can be recommended for the production of processed products such as crisps and chips because of stomach-filing qualities. Correlation results revealed that dry matter content of sweet potato does not have any significant influence on the proximate compositions. It is suggested that varieties with high dry matter can be use for breeding purpose to improve local varieties.
Keywords: Food safety, Plant sources, Ripening inducers
Evaluation of Selected Cassava Genotypes for Yield Traits and Root Postharvest Quality
Olaniyo, E. E1., Parkes, E. Y1., Akinyele, B.O2., Abolore, B. A1., Iluebbey, P. O1. and Kulakow, P. A1.
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria 2Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA)
Presenting Authors’ email: email@example.com
Corresponding Authors’ email:: P.Kulakow@cgiar.org
In order to delay the challenge of post-harvest physiological deterioration on cassava root quality, an experiment was carried out on seventeen elite cassava genotypes and five commercial checks, arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications at the experimental site of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 cropping seasons. The experiment was conducted to evaluate yield performance of selected genotypes and their response to post-harvest physiological deterioration. Yield data were collected at harvest and post-harvest data were assessed for physiological deterioration at 3, 7 and 10 days after harvest. All data generated were analysed with R statistical software. The results of the study revealed significant (P<0.05) variation for all the traits evaluated. The percentage dry matter content for the two seasons ranged from 38.37% to 20.03%, with the highest value for IITA-TMS-IBA100499 and least for IITA-TMS-IBA101872. The fresh root yields of four elite genotypes out of the seventeen genotypes were higher than the best check varieties used, with the highest fresh root yield of 31.67t/ha for IITA-TMS- IBA950289 in the two seasons. The result on the post-harvest quality showed a water loss increase in dry matter content during storage, and also post-harvest physiological loss observed for all the genotypes evaluated at 3, 7 and 10 days after harvest. There was a progressive decrease in the quality of cassava roots during storage with the highest physiological deterioration found among the cassava roots stored 10 days after harvest.
Keywords: Post-harvest physiological deterioration, performance, variation and postharvest quality
Evaluation of Cassava Genotypes for Primary Post Harvest Physiological Deterioration at Uniform Yield Trial Stage of Breeding
Olaniyo E. E., Parkes, E. Y., Abolore, B. A., Ogwuche, T. O., Iluebbey, P. O. and Kulakow, P. A.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: P.Kulakow@cgiar.org
Presenting Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava roots have a very short shelf life because of a process known as post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) which renders cassava roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD of cassava is an endogenous and complex process that restricts their storage potentials to only a few days after harvest. Therefore, there is need to evaluate and identify clones that show tolerant to PPD. Nine improved cassava genotypes and three commercial checks were selected and planted in a uniform yield trial. The trial was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at International institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, during the 2018/2019 cropping seasons. The selected genotypes were assessed for PPD and dry matter content (DM) at 3, 7 and 10DAH (days after harvesting). Data were collected and analysed in R. The combined analysis of variance showed significant variability (p<0.05) for all the traits studied for PPD, with estimated mean value range from 1.28 to 3.30. Genotype with the lowest PPD rate was IITA-TMS-IBA121824 (1.28), dry matter content of 38.99% and performed better than the mean difference (2.82) and mean of the best check varieties used (IITA-TMS- IBA070593 (2.33), IITA-TMS-IBA980581 (3.98) and TMEB693 (3.98). Genotypes with varying ability of PPD tolerant were identified.
Keywords: Variability, Post-harvest physiological deterioration, shelf life
Comparative analysis of performance of cassava clones for dry matter and total carotenoids at the seedling nursery and clonal stages of breeding
Olaniyo, E. E., Bakare, M. A., Parkes, E. Y., Iluebbey, P. O., Ogwuche, T. O. and Kulakow, P. A.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria Corresponding Authors’ email: P.Kulakow@cgiar.org
Presenting Authors’ email: email@example.com
Cassava is the most important food crop, however, variation in total carotenoid (TC) and dry matter (DM) contents in cassava roots at the seedling nursery and clonal is a vital strategy for crop advancement. Hence, need for comparative analysis. This research is a product of 2015 seedling nursery and 2016 clonal trials at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). The trial consists of 295 plants selected for DM and 23 for TC. Traits evaluated includes; DM and TC as detected by iCheckTM analysis. Data were analysed in SAS. Result of mean difference was 32.27 for DM seedling and 37.06 for DM clonal; 6.69 for TC seedling, 7.75 for TC clonal. Perfect linear association of up to 50% was observed for all the traits. Multivariate analysis result indicates that DM and TC were significantly far apart for the different stages of crop improvement. This study is relevant for the vital on-going efforts at IITA to release cassava clones in Africa with adequate and stable level of TC and DM.
Keywords: Linear association, multivariate, variation, iCheckTM analysis
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Dry Matter and total Carotenoid contents in Cassava in Forest Savanna Transition and Humid Forest Zone of Nigeria
Olasupo Kayode T.1, Akinyele Oluwole2, Ogwuche T.O1 and Peter Kulakow1
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria 2Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure
Presenting Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org Corresponding Authors’ email: P.Kulakow@cgiar.org
Twenty-three cassava genotypes along with one commercial check were arranged in Randomize Complete Block design (RCBD) with two replications during the period of 2017 to 2018 cropping season and assessed for genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in dry matter and total carotenoid contents at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were collected on dry matter content (%), total carotenoid content (μg/g), fresh yield (t/ha) and cassava mosaic disease. All data generated were analyzed in R statistical software version 3.6.1. Analysis of variance indicated significant variation for genotype and environment on all the traits studied (p<0.05). Genotypes x environment interaction results revealed a wide range of variation for most of the traits except for harvest index (p<0.05), indicating considerable influence of environment on the expression of traits. Higher magnitude of PCV and GCV were observed, indicating large amount of variation and more scope for their improvement through selection. Magnitude of heritability (broad sense) of about 80% or more was recorded. High broad sense heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for dry matter content (%) and fresh yield (t/ha) (92.4 and 14.6) and (89.4 and 15.9) respectively, this indicates that direct selection can be effective for this traits.
Keywords: Genetic, heritability, genetic advance, improvement, phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV)
Improving sweetpotato breeding: Developing a product profile for fried sweetpotato in Ghana and Nigeria
Reuben Ssali1, Edward Carey1, Eric Kuna Dery1, Abena Boakye3, Rachel Majekodunmi Omodamiro 4, Hauwa Ladi Yusuf5, Eunice Etwire6, Prince Maxwell Etwire7, Abigail Oluwatunmise Iyilade8, Souleimane Adekambi6, Abdullahi Ali5, Muhammad Haliru5 and Jan Low3
1International Potato Center (CIP), Kumasi, Ghana
2International Potato Center (CIP), Nairobi, Kenya
3Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 4National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria 5Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
7Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Nyankpala, Ghana
Developing varieties suitable for diverse end-users requires defining key user-preferred quality traits. Preferences for product characteristics spring from broader nutritional, socio-economic and gender dynamics, driving variety choice and use. Surveys and focus group discussions with farmers, fryers, marketers and consumers along the sweetpotato value chain were conducted in Kano and Kwara States, Nigeria, and Upper East Region of Ghana in September 2019, to determine the product profile for the popular snack, chunk fried sweetpotato. Results indicate that raw roots suitable for making fried sweetpotato should be mature, hard when pressed with the fingers, have a smooth skin without any grooves, and should not have off-odors or holes. During peeling and slicing, raw roots should be hard to slice, while after slicing, the surface should be almost dry and not sticky. Stickiness and a moist surface indicate low dry matter, associated with excessive oil absorption during frying. Hard to slice roots connote both high dry matter and mealiness. The final fried product should have a uniform color with a brown tint and not be soggy or oily when touched. In the mouth, the product should be crispy, with a slightly sugary taste and mealy internal texture. Crispness, mealiness and short frying time of the chunks with limited oil absorption may be functions of starch properties. Understanding starch characteristics and other attributes that contribute to quality fried sweetpotato will be important for breeding of sweetpotato genotypes with superior quality for chunk fries, or other fried forms such as french fries and crisps.
8Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Variation in Dry Matter Accumulation of Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties evaluated at Different times in Nigeria
ThankGod Ogwuche1, Adetoro Najimu1, Mercy E. Diebiru-Ojo1, Kayode Olasupo1, Teleola Akinlawon2, Mark Nelson2, Peter Iluebbey1, Elizabeth Parkes1 and Peter Kulakow1
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria 2Context Global Development, St. Louis, Missouri 63132, USA
Corresponding Authors’ email: P.Kulakow@cgiar.org Presenting Authors’ email: T.Ogwuche@cgiar.org
The increase in dry matter yield of cassava is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Hence, there is need to evaluate the variation of dry matter contents from the storage roots of improved cassava varieties at different times in order to make recommendation to processors and farmers, the most suitable time to harvest for optimum dry matter yield. The monthly dry matter evaluation was carried out across seven locations in established demonstration trials during 2018-2019 planting season at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Two plant stands were randomly sampled per replicate and storage roots milked at (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15) months after planting (MAP) and processed for estimation of dry matter content (DMC) following the oven dry method. Data were analysed and results indicates significant variation exists among the studied varieties. DMC mean value was 31.8% and ranged from 27.2% to 37.8% at 8 MAP and 15 MAP respectively. TMS13F1160P0004 (41.7%) and CR36/5 (41.7%) performed better than others, followed by TMEB419 (41.5%) evaluated at 15 MAP. Stability trends for DMC, showed that genotype TMS13F1160P0004 was stable and ranged from 32.1% to 40.9% for 8 MAP and 15 MAP respectively. TMS13F1160P0004 (36.9%) had the highest mean DMC followed by TMEB419 (34.0%), IITA-TMS-IBA961632 (34.6) and CR36/5 (33.5%) and the least value were 24.2% and 26.6% for IBA141092 and IITA-TMS-IBA070593 respectively. The study identified TMS13F1160P0004 as the most stable variety.
Key word: Milked, demonstration trial, significant variation and stable
Postharvest Losses and Market Orientation among Root and Tuber Crop Producing Households in Southeast, Nigeria
1Ukeje, B.A., 2Njoku, M. N., 1Agoh, E., 2Alamba, C.S. and 1Asumugha, G.N.
1National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike 2Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study investigated the determinants of the relationship between postharvest losses and market orientation of root and tuber crop in Southeast, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from the respondents. Multi-stage randomized sampling procedure was used to select 192 farmers for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics to examine the average characteristics of the household producers. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method of the multiple regression was used to estimate the determinants of Market Orientation among root and tuber crop producing households. Pearsons’ Moment Correlation model was also used to evaluate the relationship between postharvest losses and market orientation, while Principal Component Model (factor analysis) was used to identify the constraints militating against market orientation among root and tuber crop producers. Results showed that the farmers had initial capital investment of N94,208 and a mean monthly income of about N71,455. However, from the regression result, coefficients for age, educational level, cooperative membership, income, market information, credit availability and non-farm income were found to have significant relationship with market orientation. The correlation result also showed that there is weak and positive correlation between market orientation and post harvest losses. Varimax–rotated factors militating against market orientation among root and tuber crop farmers were also revealed. The study advocates policies aimed at improving the market orientation of root and tuber farmers such as providing chemicals, strengthening extension delivery, improving marketing channels, rural infrastructure (good road network) and access to processing and storage facilities at minimal cost.
Keywords: Market orientation, postharvest, root and tuber crop
Coupling Breeder selection with end-user preferences in defining breeding targets
for cassava improvement
Siraj Ismail Kayondo1,2,4, Dunia Pino Del Carpio3, Hamba S1, Ssemwanga M1, Yona Baguma1, Vernon Gracen2,3, Offei Samuel2, Dzidzienyo D2, Ifie B2
and Robert S Kawuki 3,4
1National Agricultural Research Organisation, NARO, P.O. Box, 7084 Kampala, Uganda,
2West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement, (WACCI), University of Ghana,
3School of Integrative Plant Sciences, Section on Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York,
4International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) PMB5320, Ibadan Oyo state, Nigeria
Corresponding Author’s email: S.Kayondo@cgiar.org
End-users are consistently demanding for cassava varieties with exceptional processing and cooking qualities in addition to yield related attributes. This study compared different ways through which breeders and end-users determined what constitute their best variety among the twelve-regional cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) brown streak-resistant varieties. Both breeders and end-users evaluated foliar and root related traits at two different stages of the cassava crop. Pre-harvest evaluations mainly focused on plant architecture and earliness, while, post-harvest evaluations assessed disease tolerance and sensometric attributes. To compare the extent of reliability between breeders and end-user acceptability, two mother and eleven baby trials were jointly evaluated. Based on sensometric assessment of fried, boiled, milled and raw cassava genotypes, three homogenous clusters of end-users were found. Significant differences in the frequency of end-users that preferred steamed and deep fried-cassava chips were found indicating higher levels of acceptability across regions. Three broad end-user segments were identified through hierarchical clustering indicating the existence of heterogeneous acceptance of cassava varieties. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) based on both agro-morphological and sensometric assessment explained a 54% variance which illustrates the existence of significant differences in overall acceptability between varieties.nSensory attributes of cassava products varied between varieties with the specific relationship between gender, region and experience growing cassava varieties. Frying was more important in explaining the inter-varietal differences. UG142245 and UG142266 received negative acceptance ranking, implying that they had some inherent genetic attributes that negatively affected their overall liking scores, especially for agro-morphological traits. Results from this study could constitute useful information for breeders in refining and packaging cassava product profiles.
Keywords: Cassava, sensory attributes, processing, end-user acceptance, varieties
Effect of Storage and Packaging Materials on Color and Carotenoid Content of Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato Flours
Sarah Chilungo1,2, Tawanda Muzhingi4 ,Van-Den Truong1,3 and Jonathan C. Allen1
1Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, 322 Schaub Hall, Box 7624, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA 2 Department of Agriculture and Research Services, 2Chitedze Research Station, P. O. Box 158, Lilongwe, Malawi
3Food and Nutritional Evaluation Laboratory, International Potato Centre (CIP) Regional Office for SSA, Biosciences for East and Central Africa (BecA), ILRI, Old Naivasha Road, P. O. Box 25171-00603, Nairobi, Kenya
4USDA-ARS, SEA, Food Science Research Unit, North Carolina State University, 322 Schaub Hall, Box 7624, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.com
The loss of Carotenes during storage of orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) flours is a major issue. This study evaluated the effect of storage and packaging materials on carotene content, color and water activity of OFSP flours. Flours from Vita and Kabode OFSP genotypes were packed in aluminum foil laminate (AFL), high density polyethylene and Kraft paper and stored under light and dark conditions for 4 months. Results showed significant carotenoid losses (P < 0.001) and color value changes (P < 0.05) in stored OFSP flours under both light and dark storage conditions. The highest carotenoid loss was found in flours packed in Kraft paper (59.33%), while AFL (29.88%) was least. A significant (P < 0.01) increase in water activity was observed in all packed samples regardless of storage environment. Therefore, the study suggests AFL as the best packaging material for stored OFSP flour due to the low loss of carotenes.
Keywords: Sweet Potato Flour, Storage, Packaging Material, Color, Carotenoid
Comparative assessment of chemical, functional, and pasting properties of flours produced from Zambian cassava varieties using Oven-, Sun-, and Freeze-drying methods
Alamu Emmanuel Oladeji1*,4, Manda Noah2, Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas2, Adebayo Abass3, and Maziya-Dixon Busie4
1Food and Nutrition Sciences Laboratory, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Southern Africa Research and Administration Hub (SARAH) Campus, Lusaka, Zambia
2Cassava Breeding Unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Southern Africa Research and Administration Hub (SARAH) Campus, Lusaka, Zambia
3Food Science Laboratory, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Eastern Africa Hub, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
4Food and Nutrition Sciences Laboratory, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria
Corresponding Author’s email: N.Manda@cgiar.org
Cassava is generally a low nutrient food crop, particularly the roots, and the primary crop consumed in the tropics. Because of the high post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), the evaluation of processing procedures geared towards extending the product’s shelf-life is important. Cassava roots are usually dehydrated to reduce the water content using various dewatering and drying procedures. Therefore, it is imperative to determine which of the probable methods is most suitable to preserve the essential qualities of the cassava, hence this research. Seven clones of cassava roots were dried using three methods (sun-drying, oven-drying and freeze-drying). The effects of drying methods on nutritional, functional and pasting properties were investigated using standard methods. Generally, the highest % sugar contents were recorded for the freeze-dried samples. Similarly, the % starch was higher in the sun-dried samples of six out of the seven samples when compared to the oven-dried samples. Results recorded for the functional properties ranged from 31.29-61.04%, 2.31-5.41%, 119.68-206.78% and 54.00-70.00% for solubility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and dispersability, respectively. The variety of the cassava and drying methods significantly affected the color, chemical, functional, and pasting properties of the different cassava flours
Keywords: cassava roots, drying methods, functional properties, pasting properties, freeze-drying
Occurrence of Postharvest Fungal Rots of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.) in Southwest Nigeria, and their Control with Sawdust Extracts
*1Beckley, F. and 2Awoyemi, S. O.
1Department of Crop Protection, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta 2Department of Crop Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure *Corresponding Author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A study was conducted in three Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) of Southwest, Nigeria, to evaluate the incidence and pathogenicity of postharvest fungal rots of sweetpotato and their control with extracts of sawdust from some tropical plants. Survey of rotted tubers was conducted in 18 markets across the three AEZs: Humid rainforest (HF), Derived Savannah (DS), and southern Guinea Savannah (SGS). Fungi associated with rotted tubers were isolated, identified and their pathogenicity determined. In vitro fungitoxicity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, Gmelina arborea and Cola nitida sawdust extracts were assessed in an experiment laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replicates. Six fungi species found to be associated with rot on tubers were Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium oxalicum and Fusarium oxysporum. Highest (35%) rot incidence was observed in HF zone with R. stolonifer as the most prevalent. Botryodiplodia theobromae was most prevalent (68.75%, 54.54%) in SGS and DS zones respectively. All the six isolated fungi were pathogenic to sweetpotato but induced varying levels of rot severity. Botryodiplodia theobromae, R. stolonifer or A. niger induced complete (100%) rot of inoculated tubers. Sawdust extracts reduced mycelial growth of test pathogens at three sawdust concentrations (50g/L, 75g/L and 100g/L) tested. Inhibition of fungal growth increased with extract concentration. Anogeissus leiocarpus sawdust extract at 100g/L exhibited highest range of mycelial growth inhibition (8.80 – 73.0%) across tested pathogens. Gmelina arborea sawdust extract at 100g/L significantly inhibited (p<0.05) mycelial growth of B. theobromae, P. oxalicum and T. viride, while C. nitida exhibited strong fungitoxicity to F. oxysporum at 100g/L. Application of the sawdust extracts at these concentrations has the potential to minimize postharvest fungal rot of sweetpotato.
Keywords: Occurrence, Postharvest, Fungal rot, Sweetpotato, Sawdust extracts
Effect of Biotic elicitors on phytochemical accumulation in cocoyam
1Harbor Chioma Ikechi, 2Uka Wisdom Chijioke, 2Irouka Chinyere Gift and 2Ukpong Joseph
1Minor Root Crops Programme, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com
Pests and diseases affect crop productivity. Plants therefore, produce array of phytochemicals through which they interact with their environment and subdue challenges. From literature, plant production of phytochemicals can be enhanced through elicitation with biotic elicitors, this informed our research. In this study, 7 groups of one month old potted cocoyam plants were treated for three days with 10ml daily foliar applications of biotic elicitors; extract of garlic, turmeric and ginger. Respectively, group 1 and 2 received 1% and 5% ginger extract, 3 and 4 received 1% and 5% garlic extract, 5 and 6 received 1% and 5% turmeric extract, while group 7 the control received 10ml water for 3 days. The phytochemical levels were determined before and after treatments. The results showed in general, a dose dependent increase in phytochemicals in most of the treatment groups. All three extracts caused an increase in alkaloids. Garlic and ginger increased flavonoids; ginger and turmeric increased phenols; garlic and turmeric increased tannins, while ginger and turmeric increased anthocyanin. Also observed was that the best elicitation was caused by the application of ginger extract giving the highest accumulation of flavonoids (3.1μg/g), alkaloids (0.7μg/g) and phenols (0.8μg/g); highest in tannins was by garlic and turmeric (0.8μg/g) and turmeric gave the highest value for anthocyanin (0.7μg/g). These increases were significantly higher than the observations in the control. Therefore, foliar application of biotic elicitors promises to be a sustainable way to increase phytochemicals in plants and should be explored for pest and disease management.
Keywords: Elicitor, phytochemical, ginger, garlic and turmeric
Effect of agronomic and seed quality maintenance training on the management of bacterial wilt disease in potato: An application of means-end chain analysis
Julius J. Okello, Bruce Ochieng, Elmar Schulte-Geldermann and Guy Hareau
International Potato Center, P.O. Box 2274, Kampala, Uganda Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bacterial wilt (BW) disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum leads to major economic losses in potato. It has no known chemical control. Most farmers often don’t know how to manage BW. This study examines the impact of a combination of structured agronomic training and farmer- hosted demonstrations on the selection of BW management strategies by smallholder potato farmers in three major potato producing counties of Kenya. It also examines motivations for selection of control strategies. The training was delivered through farmer groups. Baseline and end line interviews with participating farmers were conducted using laddering interviews. The baseline interviews involved 101 farmers, of whom 45 who completed the training were re- interviewed three years later. Results show that farmers who completed the training identified and listed the management strategies that are effective in BW control. These were: crop rotation, positive selection, uprooting and burning infected plants and using clean or certified seed. The same farmers listed many non-effective BW control strategies, including uprooting and throwing away infected plants, getting seed from a different source/farmer in the community and use of chemicals prior to the training. The motivations for using the various BW management strategies also differed greatly before and after training. Specifically, the structure and content of mental models associated with use of BW strategies differed before and after training. We therefore, conclude that the training was effective in changing farmers BW management practices. The findings imply that effective control of BW requires a multi-pronged strategy encompassing field demonstration of proven control methods.
Genotype by environment interaction on resistance to cassava green mite and correlated traits of cassava genotypes in Nigeria
Lydia Jiwuba1, Eric Danquah2,5, Isaac Asante2,6, Agyemang Danquah2, Essie Blay2,5, Joseph Onyeka1, and Chiedozie Egesi1,3,4*
1National Root Crops Research Institute, NRCRI, P.M.B, 7006 Umudike, Nigeria 2West Africa Center for Crop Improvement, (WACCI), University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
3Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 4International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria 5Department of Crop Science, University of Ghana, Legon 6Department of Botany, University of Ghana, Legon *Corresponding Authors’ email: email@example.com (C.N Egesi)
Fifty-eight cassava genotypes plus two check varieties were evaluated in three locations for two years (six environments). The objectives of the study were to identify superior genotypes that exhibit high stability with cassava green mite resistance and other useful agronomic traits with general and specific environmental adaptation, and to identify environments that best represent target environments for high expression of these traits. The combined analysis of variance based on additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) revealed significant genotype, environment and genotype by environment interactions (GEI) for all traits. The percentage variation due to environment was higher than the percentage variation due to genotype for CGMS, LR, DMC and FRY, indicating that environment greatly influenced the expression of these traits. The percentage variation due to GEI accounted for higher percentage variation than that for genotype and environment separately for all traits, indicating the influence of genotype by interaction on expression of the traits. These findings indicate that the screening /evaluating for these traits requires multi-environment trials. AMMI biplot analysis and genotype stability index (GSI) incorporating the AMMI stability value and yield in a single non-parametric index were used to identify genotypes G31, G19, G52 and G11 as the most stable and most resistant to CGM which also combine high FRY and other useful agronomic traits, suggesting it is possible to combine these traits in cassava as desired by farmers. These genotypes can be evaluated in more environments to assess their adaptability and possible recommendation for release to farmers for cultivation.
Keywords: Cassava, Cassava green mite (CGM), Genotype by environment interactions (GEI), Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI), Genotype stability index (GSI), yield traits
Assessment of the Fungitoxic Potentials of Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf in the Control of Fungal Rot Pathogens of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata L.) in Storage
1Nwaneri, J. A. and 2Enyiukwu, D. N.
1National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, PMB 7006 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria 2Department of Plant Health Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yams are important dietary staple in most parts of tropical Africa, especially in Southeast Nigeria, where they form a significant source of calories, minerals and vitamins for their consumers. However, efficient storage of the tubers is challenged by rots occasioned by fungal pathogens. In this study, the effects of 30% aqueous extracts of T. pachysiphon leaf, stem, root barks and benomyl against spore germination, radial growth of the fungal rot pathogens and rot development on the tubers were assessed. The experiment was laid out in CRD made up of 5 treatments replicated 3 times. Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporium, and Aspergilius species were isolated from the rotted tubers; with the first two virulently inducing tuber rot during pathogenicity tests. The in vitro results indicated that the test organisms were most sensitive to the test leaf extract with percent inhibitions of 90.27% and 75.57% for spore germination and mycelial growth respectively, while root bark which recorded 68.22% and 64.20% for the respective parameters was the least fungitoxic. The trend was similar in vivo with the leaf extracts recording mean low rot severity (2.23) on inoculated tubers which was statistically at par with 2.01 recorded for benomyl treated tubers, while the root extract treated tubers recording 2.67 on a 10 point scale was the least. These findings support that extract of T. pachysiphon could be used to protect yam tubers in storage against fungal rot pathogens of the crop.
Keywords: Yam, Tabernaemontana pachysiphon, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer
Progress in editing eIF-4E Gene to Confer Resistance to Pvy in Potato
1*Moyo, M., 1Magembe, E.M., 2Veillet, F. and 1Ghislain, M.
1International Potato Center, Nairobi, Kenya
2IGEPP, INRAE, Institut Agro, Univ Rennes, 29260, Ploudaniel, France
Corresponding authors’ email:
Potyvirus Y (PVY) causes severe tuber quality and yield reduction often due to its accumulation in seeds which handicap future harvests. Many elite varieties are susceptible to PVY. Whereas, introgression of PVY resistance genes is a tedious process by conventional breeding, editing susceptibility genes of the elite varieties is a novel and promising strategy. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF-4E) gene family has been identified to play a crucial role in viral infectivity with mutants or variants of the elF-4E gene affecting the interaction leading to enhanced PVY resistance. In this study, the elF-4E gene in a PVY susceptible variety, Shangi, was chosen for genome editing using prime editing approach. The strategy is to edit alleles of the elF-4E of Shangi to resemble that of the PVY resistant wild relative, the allele Eva1, thus conferring Shangi with resistance without any pleiotropic effects. Through sequence analysis, five amino acid differences were identified between the active site region of elF-4E in Shangi and that of Eva1. A total of seven prime editing guide RNAs (pegRNA) were designed to edit each individual amino acid (pegRNA 1-5), two (pegRNA 6), and all five amino acid changes (pegRNA 7). The pegRNAs were cloned into pTwist_ENTR vectors followed by Gateway LR reaction with a customized transformation vector, pDePPE, containing the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease. Protoplasts were isolated from Shangi and PEG-mediated transformation conducted using the seven vectors separately. The results presented represent the methodology and progress achieved to date.
Keywords: Prime editing, active site, protoplast, pegRNA
Screening for resistance against cassava mosaic- and cassava brown streak viruses with precision and speed
Samar Sheat and Stephan Winter*
Plant Virus Department, Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany
*Corresponding Authors‘ email: Stephan.email@example.com
Breeding cassava for resistance against viruses requires the sources of resistance, readily flowering genotypes to produce viable crosses and seeds and, a straightforward screening process. For identification of cassava resistance against mosaic viruses, planting seedlings into infection hotspots guarantees virus infections from viruliferous whiteflies. Symptoms become readily visible and scoring for disease incidence and severity allows selection of resistant candidates already during the first planting season. In contrast, screening for resistance against cassava brown streak viruses is cumbersome because of the unpredictable virus transmission from whitefly populations, slow plant infection processes that are often not associated with distinct leaf symptoms, and assessment of root necrosis as an indicator for plant resistance/ tolerance. The selection of promising candidates thus extends over several growing cycles and is still associated with uncertainties from the erratic virus infections. We have developed a fast forward virus screening workflow for cassava resistance screening by which cassava seedlings pass through an intensive and precise virus infection routine after which resistance against mosaic and brown streak viruses can be assessed with high accuracy and, in less than 9 months, – from seedling infection to a final verdict. Components of the tactics are; effective virus infections reduce biological repeats and increase accuracy, susceptible sensitive lines are eliminated early, to conduct detailed virus studies with pre-selected lines only. The developed protocol shifts resistance evaluation from the field to the nursery, replacing the erroneous and lengthy infection and screening process with a method of precision and speed.
Willard Mbewe1, Andrew Mtonga2, Margret Chiipanthenga1, Kennedy Masamba1, Gloria Chitedze1, Pilirani Pamkomera2, Ellen Gondwe3, Obed Mwenye4, and Felistus Chipungu4
1Department of Agricultural Research Services, Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station, P. O. Box 5748, Limbe, Malawi
2Department of Agricultural Research Services, Chitedze Agricultural Research Station, P. O. Box 158, Lilongwe, Malawi
3University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Mathematical Sciences Department, P.O. Box 280, Zomba, Malawi
4International Potato Centre, P. O. Box 31600, Lilongwe, Malawi Corresponding Authors’ email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A survey was carried out in 19 districts to investigate the prevalence and distribution of Sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD) and its implication on the sustainability of clean seed system in Malawi. A total of 166 leaf samples were collected and tested for the presence of 8 viruses using nitrocellulose membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NCM-ELISA). SPVD foliar symptoms were observed in 68.42% of the surveyed districts. There were significant variations in disease incidence and severity (p < 0.001) among districts, with the highest incidence in Mulanje (28.34%). Average SPVD severity score was 3.05. NCM-ELISA detected sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, 30.54%); sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV, 31.14%); sweet potato mild speckling virus (SPMSV, 16.17%); sweet potato C-6 virus, (SPC6V, 13.77%); sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, 22.16%); sweet potato collusive virus (SPCV, 30.54%), sweet potato virus G (SPVG, 11.38%), cucumber mosaic virus, (CMV, 7.78%) either in single or mixed infections. Data from this study indicate a significant SPVD occurrence in the country, and the consequence implications towards national sweetpotato seed system.
Keywords: Sweetpotato, Sweetpotato virus disease, NCM-ELISA, incidence, severity
Intra-season and inter-season stability of resistance against green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and associated plant shoot morphological traits of cassava
Chalwe Able1*, Rob Meli2, Paul Shanahan2, Martin Chiona3, Mushekwa Sakumona1
1Department of Agriculture Science, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Mukuba University, Kitwe, Zambia
2University of Kwazulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg South Africa
3Zambia Agriculture Research Institute, Mansa Research Station, Mansa, Zambia
*Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.comfirstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava genotypes that combine earliness with prolonged underground storability are most preferred for food security under subsistence farming. However, the long growth cycle of cassava coupled with the delayed harvesting by local farmers in Zambia exposes the crop to cassava green mite (CGM) attack which contributes to instability in yield performances of cassava. Various plant morphological traits have been recognized as direct or indirect defence mechanisms that enhance host plant resistance (HPR) to CGM. However, little research has been done to understand the stability of such traits despite their potential impact on the durability of HPR. With this background, field trials, involving sequential harvesting of cassava at 9, 12, and 15 months after planting (MAP) were conducted for two seasons. The objectives of the study were to establish the intra-season and inter-season stability of genotypes for resistance to CGM, and to understand the optimal bulking period of different cassava genotypes in order to identify early-bulking CGM-resistant genotypes, as well as to identify clones with good underground storability. The genotype stability index was computed for each genotype for CGM population density and leaf damage, fresh storage root yield (FSRY) and storage root dry mass percentage (SRDM%), storage root rot (SRR), and plant shoot morphological traits related to CGM resistance, across sampling dates and seasons. There were highly significant differences among genotypes at different sampling dates for all the traits studied. Genotypes Mweru and L9.304/175 exhibited high intra-season and inter-season stability for low incidence of SRR combined with high SRDM%. The level of injury caused by CGM on Mweru did not affect its FSRY, SRDM%, and resistance to SRR. Genotypes L9.304/147, L9.304/175, 4(2)1425, I60/42 exhibited the highest levels of intra-season and interseason stability for high CGM resistance. The most stable genotypes for earliness were Kapeza, L9.304/147, and 4(2)1425 which consistently yielded above 13 t ha-1 at 9 MAP across seasons.
Keywords: Mononychellus tanajoa, Host-plant resistance, Stability, Intra-season, Inter-season
Virus disease constraints to cassava production: an overview of the DRC context
Casinga, C. M.1,2*, Muhindo, H.3, Bashizi, K.B.1, Tata-Hangy, W.6, Musungayi, E.4, Ughento, H.4, Muanju, R.4, Mukendi, D.5, Munyerenkana, C. M.1, Mahungu, N.M.6, Nabahungu, N.L.1, Sikirou, M.6, Mukwa, L.7, Bakelana, T.8, Mwangu, K.9, Kamb, F.10, Wembonyama, F.11, Shirima, R.12, Mamba Mamba D.13, Dheda, B.2, Monde, G.3, Legg, J.P.11
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Bukavu-Kalambo, Democratic Republic of Congo
2Université de Kisangani, Tshopo, Democratic Republic of Congo
3Institut Facultaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Yangambi, Tshopo, Democratic Republic of Congo 4Institut National d’Etude et de Recherche Agronomique de Mulungu, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
5Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomiques de Ngandajika, Lomami, Democratic Republic of Congo
6International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
7Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kinsahsa, Democratic Republic of Congo
8 Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomiques de Mvuazi, Kongo Central, Democratic Republic of Congo
9 Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomiques de Kiyaka, Kwilu, Democratic Republic of Congo
10 Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomiques de Kipopo, Haut-Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo
11 Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomiques de Yangambi, Tshopo, Democratic Republic of Congo
12International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
13Ministry of Agriculture, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple subsistence food crop for small-holder farmers and for more than 90% of the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC has the world’s highest cassava consumption rate. In this country, cassava is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots, which are consumed raw, boiled or processed, and for its leaves, which serve as vegetables. Cassava has high socio-economic importance for small-holder farmers: it is a source of income and an excellent food security crop owing to its flexible harvesting periods. Despite its importance, cassava cultivation is confronted with multiple constraints which cause considerable yield losses for both local and improved varieties. These constraints include low soil fertility, outdated production techniques and inadequate agricultural policies, along with pests and diseases as the major ones. Three cassava diseases are the most devastating in DRC; these are the african cassava mosaic disease (CMD), the cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), which is the most economically dangerous vector-borne pathogen of cassava, and the cassava root necrosis disease (CRND). The CMD causes yield losses in tuberous roots ranging from 20 to 90% according to the varieties of cassava, the viral strain and the intensity of the attack on leaves in the first four months of cultivation. Conversely, the CBSD causes yield losses in tuberous roots ranging from 70 to 100% according to the cassava varieties from 9 to 12 months. The method of combating the CMD and the CBSD is essentially preventive. The mitigation strategies to boost cassava production in DRC include the introduction and the deployment of world class cassava germplasm, the building of a high-quality seed system for cassava dissemination, human capacity strengthening to drive development and the modernization of the cassava seed system through the application of information and communication technology tools. Not all of these strategies can be individually effective. It is therefore necessary to practice integrated vector control (Bemisia tabaci) with minimal use of synthetic insecticides.
Keywords: Cassava production, Cassava root necrosis disease, Cassava mosaic disease, Cassava brown streak disease, DRC
Genetic Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Associated with Cassava and the Occurrence of Cassava Mosaic Disease in Zambia
Patrick Chiza Chikoti1, Mathias Tembo1, James Peter Legg2, Rudolph Rufini Shirima2, Habibu Mugerwa3 and Peter Sseruwagi4
1Zambia Agriculture Research Institute, Plant Protection and Quarantine Division, Mount Makulu Research Station, Private Bag 7, Chilanga, Zambia
2 ITA-Eastern Africa Hub, Plot No 25 Mikocheni Light Industrial Area, Mwenge, Coca-Cola Road, Mikocheni B, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
3Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30223, USA
4Mikocheni Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 6226 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.com
Bemisia tabaci is an important vector of cassava brown streak viruses and cassava mosaic begomoviruses; the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease (CMD), respectively. A study was carried out to determine the genetic variability of B. tabaci associated with cassava and the occurrence of CMD in Zambia in 2013 and 2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of only the sub-Saharan Africa 1 (SSA1) genetic group in Zambia. The SSA1 population had three population subgroups (SGs): SSA1-SG1, SSA1-SG2 and SSA1-SG3. All three SSA1 population subgroups occurred in Western Province. However, only SSA1-SG3 occurred in Eastern Province, while only SSA1-SG1 occurred in North Western and Luapula Provinces. Adult B. tabaci were most abundant in Western Province in 2013 (11.1/plant) and 2015 (10.8/plant), and least abundant (0.2/plant) in Northern Province in both 2013 and 2015. CMD was prevalent in all seven provinces surveyed, with the highest incidence recorded in Lusaka Province in both 2013 (78%) and 2015 (83.6%), and the lowest in Northern Province in both 2013 (26.6%) and 2015 (29.3%). Although SSA1-SG1 occurred at greater abundances than the other subgroups, there was no direct association demonstrated between whitefly subgroup and incidence of CMD. Establishing which B. tabaci genetic groups and populations are associated with CMD and their distribution in the country is a key factor in guiding the development of CMD control strategies for cassava-dependent households.
Keywords: Whitefly, genetic diversity, mtCOI, Manihot esculenta, CMD, Southern Africa
Cassava production in Democratic Republic of Congo under double siege by the spread of Cassava Brown Streak Disease from the East and the Cassava Root Necrosis Disease from the West
Sikirou, M.1,2*, Musungayi, E.3, Bizunga, M.4, Tshiamala N.T.5, Tata-Hangy, W.1, Miafuntila, P.A.4, Mwanju, R.3, Mwangu, K.M.6, Wembonyama, F.S.7, Mukendi, D.5, Fortunat Kamb8, Adetoro, N.A.9, Kayondo, S.I.10, Bakelana, T.4, Tachin, M.2, Fiaboe, K.K.M.11, Kanju, E.12, Ntawuruhunga, P.13, Mahungu, N.M.1 and Bamba, Z.1
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PO Box 4163, Avenue Haut Congo, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); 2National University of Agriculture, School of Horticulture and Green Landscaping, P0 Box 043, Kétou, Republic of Benin; 3Institut National pour l’étude et la Recherche Agronomiques (INERA), Mulungu, DRC ; 4INERA, Mvuazi, DRC ; 5INERA, Ngandajika, DRC ; 6INERA, Kiyaka, DRC ; 7INERA, Yangambi, DRC ; 8INERA, Kipopo, DRC ; 9IITA, Kalambo, Bukavu, DRC ; 10IITA, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria ; 11IITA, BP. 2008 Messa, Yaoundé, Cameroon ; 12IITA, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ; 13IITA, Lusaka, Zambia
* Corresponding Author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava is a vital staple crop for millions of rural and urban producers, processors, and consumers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Cassava has been recognized as a famine reserve crop, a rural and urban food staple and cash crop used for urban consumption. Unfortunately, production is adversely affected by two distinct diseases: the cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) that invaded the country from its East border and progressing towards the central and Western part, and the cassava root necrosis diseases (CRND) invading the country from its west border and spreading towards the East. Development and deployment of varieties tolerant/resistant to the diseases are practical and viable options to overcome these constraints. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of thirty cassava genotypes that comprised of 15 dual resistant and 13 improved varieties most preferred and grown in DRC and two checks: Obama (susceptible to CBSD) and NARO-CASS1 (tolerant). Nine of the elite varieties were introduced in 2003 as a rescue package against the cassava mosaic disease (CMD). An advanced yield trial (AYT) was conducted in 2019/20 across three different locations using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on the following traits were collected: cassava mosaic disease and CBSD severity, starch content, dry matter content, marketable root number, marketable and total fresh root weight. The results showed that the CBSD root severity scores (CBSD_R_S) and fresh root yield were significant (p < 0.05) to highly significant (p< 0.01) different between genotypes and the control and between sites. All, the improved varieties, were highly susceptible (CBSD_R_S ≥ 4) to CBSD. However, 33% of the genotypes screened were not susceptible to Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) but showed susceptibility to cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) by using qRT-PCR diagnosis. Except I2001/1661, all the other genotypes had very high dry matter (>38%). High heritability was recorded for CBSD_R_S (H2=0.84) and for fresh root yield (H2=0.52) indicating that these traits can be inherited, and that screening can generate repeatable results. Compared to the control field, there was significant reduction in fresh root yield under high disease pressure areas from 7.61 to 96.98% depending on the genotype. Knowing that DRC is bordering nine different African countries, these threats could lead to food insecurity in the region. Thus, this calls for immediate and more breeding efforts to identify sources to CBSD resistance.
Keywords: Cassava Brown Streak Disease, Cassava Root Necrosis Disease, Cassava Mosaic Disease, Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa